Open Access Research article

Predictors of the resumption of menses in adolescent anorexia nervosa

Astrid Dempfle1, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann2, Nina Timmesfeld1, Reinhild Schwarte2, Karin M Egberts3, Ernst Pfeiffer4, Christian Fleischhaker5, Christoph Wewetzer6 and Katharina Bühren2*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany

2 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany

3 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

4 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

5 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

6 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Kliniken der Stadt Köln, Köln, Germany

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BMC Psychiatry 2013, 13:308  doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-308

Published: 15 November 2013

Abstract

Background

The resumption of menses is an important indicator of recovery in anorexia nervosa (AN). Patients with early-onset AN are at particularly great risk of suffering from the long-term physical and psychological consequences of persistent gonadal dysfunction. However, the clinical variables that predict the recovery of menstrual function during weight gain in AN remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of several clinical parameters on the resumption of menses in first-onset adolescent AN in a large, well-characterized, homogenous sample that was followed-up for 12 months.

Methods

A total of 172 female adolescent patients with first-onset AN according to DSM-IV criteria were recruited for inclusion in a randomized, multi-center, German clinical trial. Menstrual status and clinical variables (i.e., premorbid body mass index (BMI), age at onset, duration of illness, duration of hospital treatment, achievement of target weight at discharge, and BMI) were assessed at the time of admission to or discharge from hospital treatment and at a 12-month follow-up. Based on German reference data, we calculated the percentage of expected body weight (%EBW), BMI percentile, and BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) for all time points to investigate the relationship between different weight measurements and resumption of menses.

Results

Forty-seven percent of the patients spontaneously began menstruating during the follow-up period. %EBW at the 12-month follow-up was strongly correlated with the resumption of menses. The absence of menarche before admission, a higher premorbid BMI, discharge below target weight, and a longer duration of hospital treatment were the most relevant prognostic factors for continued amenorrhea.

Conclusions

The recovery of menstrual function in adolescent patients with AN should be a major treatment goal to prevent severe long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Patients with premenarchal onset of AN are at particular risk for protracted amenorrhea despite weight rehabilitation. Reaching and maintaining a target weight between the 15th and 20th BMI percentile is favorable for the resumption of menses within 12 months. Whether patients with a higher premorbid BMI may benefit from a higher target weight needs to be investigated in further studies.

Keywords:
Resumption of menses; Adolescence anorexia nervosa; Target weight; Menstrual recovery; Outcome; Body mass index; Menarche; Amenorrhea