Table 3

Study characteristics of eligible studies included in this review, grouped by study design, year of publication, and author
Author, country of study, year n = subjects (%females) Age, years; Mean (±SD) or range, yr Population description Dietary assessment Depression assessment Quality score%
Tool Type Tool Cut-off
Cohort
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] 3486 (26.2) 55.6 (*), 35–55 White European participants in the Whitehall II study with diet data at 1997–9, and depression data at 2002–4 FFQ, validated, 127 items (i) Whole food CES-D >15 100
(ii) Processed food
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2009 [36] 10,094 (% in categories of adherence to Med. diet; 0–2: 59.9 3: 61.4 4: 58.0 5: 57.4 6–9: 56.0) Age in categories of adherence to Med. diet; 0–2: 33.3 (9.8) 3: 35.7 (10.7) 4: 36.8 (11.3) 5: 38.0 (11.6) 6–9: 41.3 (12.1) SUN Spanish cohort of former students of University of Navarra, registered professionals from some Spanish provinces and other university graduates FFQ, validated, 136 items Mediterranean diet Self-reported question 83.3
Chatzi et al., Greece, 2011 [15] 529 (100) * Prospective mother-child cohort, recruitment mid-pregnancy, follow up 8–10 weeks post-partum FFQ, validated for this particular cohort, 250 items (i) Western pattern EPDS ≥13 91.7
(ii) Healthy pattern
Okubu et al., Japan, 2011 [23] 865 (100) 29.9 (4.0) Pregnant females enrolled in the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study, recruited 2001–3, follow up 2–9 months post-partum DHQ, validated, 145 items (i) Healthy diet EPDS ≥9 100
(ii) Western diet
(iii) Japanese diet
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] 8,964 (*) * SUN Spanish cohort of former students of University of Navarra, registered professionals from some Spanish provinces and other university graduates FFQ, validated, 136 items, 2 × 24 hour diet recalls (i) Fast food Self-reported question 100
(ii) Commercial baked goods
Case–control
Park et al., Korea, 2010 [37] 130 (100) Cases: 20.6 (0.2) Korean female College students residing in Incheon area, recruited 2009 Independently constructed self-reported dietary habits questionnaire 16 items (i) Dietary pattern of meat, fish, eggs, beans more than twice a day CES-D ≥16 84.6
Control: 20.5 (0.2)
(ii) Total dietary habits score
Cross-sectional
Tangney et al., USA, 2002 [26] 117 (100) 61.5 (*) Female breast cancer patients of urban teaching hospital, cancer diagnosis 0.5–5 years prior to 1997 HHHQ transcribed to modified Block FFQ, HEI Diet quality ascertained by HEI score CES-D ≥16 88.9
Liu et al., China, 2007 [30] 2,579 (42.1) 20.4 (*) College students over 7 cities in China, recruited 2003–4 Independently constructed FFQ specifically for study (i) Ready to eat food CES-D, adapted to use 3 items 88.9
(ii) Snack food
(iii) Fast food
Samieri et al., France, 2008 [25] 1,724 (62.5) 65+ Community-dwelling residents of Bordeaux, France, enrolled in Three-City study, recruited 2001–2 FFQ, 24 hour diet recall (i) Biscuits and snacking CES-D, hybrid analyses 88.9
(ii) Healthy diet
(iii) Charcuterie, starchy foods (women) ψ
(iv) Pizza, sandwich (women)
Jeffery et al., USA, 2009 [19] 4,655 (100) 52.4 (6.6) Telephone survey of females enrolled in the Group Health Cooperative who had previously completed survey regarding breast cancer risk Independently constructed FFQ, 39 items (i) High calorie sweet diet PHQ ≥10 55.6
(ii) High calorie non-sweet diet
(iii) Low calorie diet
Beydoun et al., USA, 2009 [32] (i) 1789 (56.1) (i) 30–64 Two subsamples of HANDLS, recruited from initial recruitment phase in 2004; sample (ii) also had information regarding bone quality USDA,AMPM 2 × 24 hour diet recall, validated, 2005 HEI Diet quality ascertained by HEI CES-D ≥16, and ≥20 88.9
(ii) 30–64
(ii) 1583 (56.5)
Mikolajczyk et al., Europe, 2009 [38] Germany: 696 (56.6) 20.6 (2.3) (Combined) First Year College students, subsample of participants enrolled in Cross National Student Health Survey, recruited 2005 FFQ, 12 items Fast food M-BDI ≥35 77.8
Poland: 489 (71.8)
Bulgaria: 654 (68.7)
Pagoto et al., USA, 2009 [24] 210 (78.4) 51.8 (11.2) Residents of Lawrence, Massachusetts, enrolled in Lawrence Diabetes Prevention Project, 2004–7 3 × 24 hour diet recalls Alternate HEI CES-D ≥16 88.9
Beydoun et al., USA, 2010 [34] 1,681 (56.3) Males: 47.9 (9.3) Subsample of HANDLS, recruited from initial recruitment phase 2004–8 USDA, AMPM, validated, 2× 24 hour recall, 2005 HEI Diet quality ascertained by HEI score CES-D ≥16 88.9
Females: 47.9 (9.2)
Beydoun and Wang, USA, 2010 [33] 2,217 (50.3) 20–39 Subsample of NHANES, pooled for periods 1999–2000, 2001–2, 2003–4 USDA, AMPM, validated, 2× 24 hour recall, 2005 HEI Diet quality ascertained by HEI score CIDI <curve AUC = 0.83 88.9
Jacka et al., Australia, 2010 [7] 1,046 (100) 20–93 Females enrolled in Geelong Osteoporosis Study, recruited 1994–7 FFQ, validated, 74 items (i) Western diet SCID-I/NP 100
(ii) Traditional diet
(iii) ‘Modern’ diet
Kuczmarski et al., USA, 2010 [29] 1,118 (55.7) 48.4 (0.3) Subsample of HANDLS, urban population, recruited from initial recruitment phase 2004–8 USDA 2005 HEI, 2 x dietary recalls Total diet quality CES-D ≥16 88.9
Mamplekou et al., Mediterranean Islands, 2010 [28] 1,190 (53.5) 65–100 Randomly recruited, population-based sample of elderly individuals residing in the Republic of Cyprus, and the islands of Mitilini, Samothraki, Cephanlonia, Crete, Corfu, Lemnos and Zakynthos FFQ, validated, MedDietScore Mediterranean diet GDS >10 88.9
Nanri et al., Japan, 2010 [22] 521 (40.7) 21–67 Employees of two municipal offices in Northeastern Kyushu, Japan, who attended a periodic health examination, recruited 2006 BDHQ, validated, 65 items, Principle component analysis (i) Healthy Japanese diet pattern CES-D ≥16 100
(ii) Animal food pattern
(iii) Westernized breakfast pattern
Aihara et al., Japan, 2011 [27] 833 (56.5) Males: 76.1 (5.0) Random recruitment from rosters of community associations of Odawara, Japan Independently constructed, self-reported dietary habits, single question “ Do you eat well-balanced meals (i.e., intake of a variety of food with staple food, as well as main and side dishes)? Well balanced diet GDS-5 ≥2 88.9
Females: 74.9 (5.5)
Castellanos et al., USA, 2011 [39] 75 (0) 29.6 (8.2) Latino males residing in Mississippi, convenience sample The Block fat and fruit and vegetable screening tool for (i) Fruit and vegetable CES-D ≥16 77.8
Mexican Americans, validated (ii) Fat intake
Crawford et al., USA, 2011 [40] 626 (100) 45–54 Females enrolled in the Midlife Health Study, recruited 2002–4 Single question “How often did you eat foods from the following restaurants during the past year?” Fast food frequency CES-D ≥16 77.8
Fowles, Timmerman et al. USA, 2011 [41] 50 (100) 24.0 (*) Low-income females in first trimester of pregnancy, identified as uninsured or underinsured by Texas-based insurance records, recruited 2009 DQI-P, 3 × 24 hour diet recall Fast food frequency EPDS ≥10 77.8
Fowles, Bryant et al. USA, 2011 [31] 118 (100) 25.3 (5.3) Low-income females in first trimester of pregnancy, identified as uninsured or underinsured by Texas-based insurance records, recruited 2009-10 DQI-P, 3 × 24 hour diet recall Total diet quality EPDS ≥10 88.9
Jacka et al., Norway, 2011 [8] 5,731 (56.8) 46–49 (n = 2,957) Subsample of Hordaland Health Study, participants from four communities, born in years 1925–7 or 1950–1 FFQ, validated, 169 items (i) Healthy diet HADS-D ≥8 88.9
70–74 (n = 2,774) (ii) Western diet
(iii) Norwegian diet
(iv) Diet quality score

* Data not provided.

Abbreviations: FFQ Food Frequency Questionnaire, USDA United States Department of Agriculture, AMPM Automated Multiple Pass Method, HEI Healthy Eating Index, CES-D Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, DHQ Diet History Questionnaire, BDHQ Brief Dietary History Questionnaire, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire, CIDI Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Version 2.1), SCID-I/NP Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-Patient Edition, HADS-D Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for depression, M-BDI Modified Beck Depression Inventory, HANDLS Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span, SUN Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, DQI-P Dietary Quality Index-Pregnancy.

ψ The analysis undertaken for male participants by Samieri et al. [25] was based on a food pattern of meat consumption and thus ineligible for inclusion.

Quirk et al.

Quirk et al. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:175   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-175

Open Data