Table 2

Results of regression analyses investigating the associations between effectiveness and subjective distress (CES), and type of coercive interventions, controlling for demographical and clinical variables (patients who experienced seclusion and mechanical restraint constituted the reference group; only models with at least one significant predictor beyond baseline scores are reported here)
Dependent variables Change scores Effectiveness Subjective distress : Mean scores Coercion Experience Scale (CES)
SDAS Uncooperative-ness Lack of insight into the illness Total score CES Factor Humiliation Factor Physical adverse effects Factor Separation Factor Negative environment Factor Fear Factor Coercion
Independent variables1 df(6;92) df(5;93) df(5;93) df(5;68) df(5;68) df(6;68) df(5;71) df(6;68) df(5;69) df(4;73)
R² = 0.4*** R² = 0.4*** R² = 0.3*** R² = 0.3*** R² = 0.2** R² = 0.4**** R² = 0.26** R² = 0.34*** R² = 0.2** R² = 0.13*
Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients Unstandardized coefficients
Seclusion 1.9 −0.2 −0.5 −0.5 −0.7 −0.9** −1.2* 0.2 0.6 0.2
Involuntary medication 6.1 0.2 −0.003 −1** −1.5** −1.4*** −1.8*** −0.3 0.5 −0.5
Seclusion & medication -.08 −0.5 −0.5 −0.3 −0.6 −0.8* −0.5 0.3 0.8 0.4
Female gender n.s. n.s. n.s. 0.6*** 0.6* 0.9*** 0.7** 0.8*** 0.6* n.s.
Age n.s. n.s. n.s. −0.02** −0.02* −0.02* n.s. −0.02** n.s. n.s.
Married status n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. −0.3* −0.6* n.s. n.s. n.s.
Voluntary status at admission n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s n.s. n.s. n.s. −0.5** n.s. n.s.
Coercive experience during previous admissions 3.8* n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
Psychotic disorder 3.8* 0.9** 0.7* n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
Pressure applied from the staff at the start of the measure n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. 0.09** 0.1*
Baseline score of SDAS, Uncooperativeness and lack of insight, respectively −0.7*** −0.7*** −0.6*** N/A² N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

* significant at the 0.05 level; ** significant at the 0.01 level; *** significant at the 0.001 level.

¹ Ethnical minority was excluded from all stepwise regression analyses; ²N/A not applicable.

Georgieva et al.

Georgieva et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:54   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-54

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