Open Access Research article

Long acting risperidone in Australian patients with chronic schizophrenia: 24-month data from the e-STAR database

Tim Lambert12*, Brett Emmerson3, Harry Hustig4, Sophie Resseler5, An Jacobs6, Belinda Butcher78 and the e-STAR Research Group

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

2 Concord Medical School and Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

3 Mental Health Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, QLD, Australia

4 Extended Care Services, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace Adelaide, SA, Australia

5 Life Science Services--Biometrics, SGS, Antwerp, Belgium

6 Health Economics & Pricing, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Beerse, Belgium

7 Medical Research, Janssen-Cilag Pty Ltd, North Ryde, NSW, Australia

8 WriteSource Medical Pty Ltd, Lane Cove, NSW, Australia

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Psychiatry 2012, 12:25  doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-25

Published: 26 March 2012



This observational study was designed to collect treatment outcomes data in patients using the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR).


Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Australia who were prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) between 2003 and 2007 were assessed 12-months retrospectively, at baseline and 24-months prospectively at 3-monthly intervals. The intent-to-treat population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of RLAI at baseline, was used for the efficacy and safety analyses.


At total of 784 patients (74% with schizophrenia, 69.8% male) with a mean age of 37.1 ± 12.5 years and 10.6 ± 9.5 years since diagnosis were included in this Australian cohort. A significant improvement in mean Clinical Global Impression - severity score was observed at 24-months (4.52 ± 1.04 at baseline, 3.56 ± 1.10 at 24-months). Most of this improvement was seen by 3-months and was also reflected in mean Global Assessment of Functioning score, which improved significantly at 24-months (42.9 ± 14.5 at baseline, 59 ± 15.4 at 24-months). For patients still receiving RLAI at 24-months there was an increase from a mean baseline RLAI dose of 26.4 ± 5 mg to 43.4 ± 15.7 mg. Sixty-six percent of patients discontinued RLAI before the 24-month period--this decreased to 46% once patients lost to follow-up were excluded.


Over the 24-month period, initiation of RLAI was associated with improved patient functioning and illness severity in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Improved outcomes were observed early and sustained throughout the study.

Trial Registration

Clinical Trials Registration Number, NCT00283517.