Table 3

Factor loadings of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale based on principal components analysis and varimax rotation method (values under.3 suppressed)
Stigma items Factors
Social withdrawal Perceived discrimination Alienation Stereotyped endorsement
Out of place (I feel out of place in the world because I have a mental illness) .46

Spoiled life (Having a mental illness has

spoiled my life)

Others cant understand (People without mental illness could not possibly understand me) .36 .53
Embarrassment (I am embarrassed or ashamed that I have a mental illness) .73
Disappointment (I am disappointed in myself for having a mental illness.) .74
Feel inferior (I feel inferior to others who don’t have a mental illness) .73
Stereotype belief (Stereotypes about the mentally ill apply to me) .32 .50
Known by looks (People can tell that I have a mental illness by the way I look) .32 .47
Violence (Mentally ill people tend to be violent) .58
Decisions (Because I have a mental illness, I need others to make most decisions for me) .31 .57
Rewarding Life (People with mental illness cannot live a good, rewarding life) .68

Marriage (Mentally ill people shouldn’t

get married)

Contribution (I can’t contribute anything to society because I have a mental illness) .67
Discrimination (People discriminate against me because I have a mental illness) .70
Achievement (Others think that I can’t achieve much in life because I have a mental illness) .78
Ignored (People ignore me or take me less seriously just because I have a mental illness) .78
Patronized (People often patronize me, or treat me like a child, just because I have a mental illness) .76
People disinterested (Nobody would be interested in getting close to me because I have a mental illness) .64
Burden others (I don’t talk about myself much because I don’t want to burden others with my mental illness) – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reduced socialisation (I don’t socialize as much as I used to because my mental illness might make me look or behave "weird") .79 – – –
Isolated (Negative stereotypes against people with mental illness like myself keep me isolated from the "normal" world) .82
Protect family (I stay away from social situations in order to protect my family or friends from embarrassment) .71
Feel inadequate (Being around people who don’t have a mental illness makes me feel out of place or inadequate) .82
Rejection (I avoid getting close to people who don't have a mental illness to avoid rejection ) .85
Eigen values 8.6 2.0 1.8 1.5
Percentage of total variance 16.7 14.1 13.9 12.4
Number of test variables 5 5 7 6

Assefa et al.

Assefa et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:239   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-239

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