Table 2

Use of healthcare services during pre- and post-index periods among all GAD patients newly started on benzodiazepines, by age*
Healthcare Service Patient Age All Patients (N=866)
<50 Years (N=568) ≥50 Years (N=298)
Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value
Outpatient care
  Outpatient office visits
  Number (%) with ≥1 visits
   Accident-related 102 (18.0) 106 (18.7) 0.72 51 (17.1) 53 (17.8) 0.80 153 (17.7) 159 (18.4) 0.66
   Other possibly related 60 (10.6) 69 (12.1) 0.33 37 (12.4) 32 (10.7) 0.47 97 (11.2) 101 (11.7) 0.73
   All of above 142 (25.0) 152 (26.8) 0.45 79 (26.5) 73 (24.5) 0.51 221 (25.5) 225 (26.0) 0.80
   All other 379 (66.7) 410 (72.2) 0.03 209 (70.1) 223 (74.8) 0.14 588 (67.9) 633 (73.1) <0.01
   All 521 (91.7) 562 (98.9) <0.01 288 (96.6) 296 (99.3) 0.02 809 (93.4) 858 (99.1) <0.01
  Mean (SD) number of visits
   Accident-related 4.2 (14.3) 5.3 (15.0) 0.15 5.9 (19.9) 6.4 (19.2) 0.69 4.8 (16.4) 5.7 (16.5) 0.18
   Other possibly related 2.5 (11.2) 3.6 (12.8) 0.06 3.0 (12.1) 5.7 (23.9) 0.05 2.7 (11.5) 4.3 (17.4) <0.01
   All of above 5.5 (15.3) 7.2 (16.6) 0.02 7.4 (20.5) 9.6 (25.7) 0.11 6.1 (17.3) 8.0 (20.2) <0.01
   All other 8.0 (13.7) 11.6 (15.9) <0.01 12.8 (24.3) 17.7 (24.7) <0.01 9.6 (18.2) 13.7 (19.6) <0.01
   All 13.4 (18.2) 18.8 (19.1) <0.01 20.2 (28.7) 27.3 (30.5) <0.01 15.8 (22.6) 21.7 (23.9) <0.01
 ED visits
  Number (%) with ≥1 visits
   Accident-related 44 (7.7) 48 (8.5) 0.60 15 (5.0) 15 (5.0) >0.99 59 (6.8) 63 (7.3) 0.67
   Other possibly related 36 (6.3) 23 (4.0) 0.06 9 (3.0) 14 (4.7) 0.28 45 (5.2) 37 (4.3) 0.33
   All of above 67 (11.8) 61 (10.7) 0.51 21 (7.0) 24 (8.1) 0.62 88 (10.2) 85 (9.8) 0.79
   All other 51 (9.0) 58 (10.2) 0.44 18 (6.0) 24 (8.1) 0.29 69 (8.0) 82 (9.5) 0.23
   All 118 (20.8) 119 (21.0) 0.93 39 (13.1) 48 (16.1) 0.26 157 (18.1) 167 (19.3) 0.48
  Mean (SD) number of visits
   Accident-related 0.7 (3.7) 1.0 (6.1) 0.27 0.6 (3.4) 1.3 (15.5) 0.47 0.7 (3.6) 1.1 (10.3) 0.25
   Other possibly related 0.8 (4.8) 0.7 (5.5) 0.47 1.1 (15.1) 1.4 (15.6) 0.24 0.9 (9.6) 0.9 (10.2) 0.92
   All of above 1.2 (5.2) 1.3 (6.5) 0.88 1.6 (15.4) 1.6 (15.7) 0.81 1.4 (9.9) 1.4 (10.6) 0.98
   All other 0.8 (4.0) 1.0 (4.7) 0.43 0.6 (3.1) 0.8 (4.0) 0.51 0.7 (3.7) 0.9 (4.5) 0.30
   All 2.1 (6.4) 2.3 (7.9) 0.49 2.2 (15.6) 2.3 (16.1) 0.72 2.1 (10.5) 2.3 (11.4) 0.44
Hospitalizations
 Number (%) with ≥1 hospitalizations
  Accident-related 11 (1.9) 13 (2.3) 0.67 8 (2.7) 7 (2.3) 0.76 19 (2.2) 20 (2.3) 0.86
  Other possibly related 12 (2.1) 13 (2.3) 0.83 8 (2.7) 10 (3.4) 0.56 20 (2.3) 23 (2.7) 0.60
  All of above 18 (3.2) 22 (3.9) 0.50 12 (4.0) 11 (3.7) 0.78 30 (3.5) 33 (3.8) 0.67
  All other 23 (4.0) 17 (3.0) 0.29 14 (4.7) 11 (3.7) 0.44 37 (4.3) 28 (3.2) 0.19
  All 41 (7.2) 39 (6.9) 0.80 26 (8.7) 22 (7.4) 0.41 67 (7.7) 61 (7.0) 0.51
 Mean (SD) number of hospitalizations
  Accident-related 0.7 (6.1) 1.2 (11.2) 0.38 1.1 (8.6) 1.3 (10.1) 0.75 0.9 (7.0) 1.2 (10.8) 0.36
  Other possibly related 0.9 (7.3) 1.3 (12.1) 0.52 1.5 (10.9) 1.7 (11.0) 0.74 1.1 (8.7) 1.4 (11.7) 0.48
  All of above 1.2 (8.1) 1.7 (13.0) 0.40 1.7 (11.1) 1.8 (11.0) 0.98 1.4 (9.3) 1.7 (12.4) 0.47
  All other 0.9 (5.9) 0.5 (4.1) 0.13 1.7 (9.0) 0.8 (5.9) 0.11 1.2 (7.1) 0.6 (4.8) 0.03
  All 2.2 (9.9) 2.2 (13.6) 0.94 3.5 (14.1) 2.6 (12.4) 0.30 2.6 (11.6) 2.3 (13.2) 0.56

GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder; SD: Standard deviation; ED: Emergency department.

Berger et al.

Berger et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:177   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-177

Open Data