Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of GAD patients designated as long-term benzodiazepine users, by age
Characteristic Patient Age All Patients (N=866)
<50 Years (N=568) ≥50 Years (N=298)
Mean (SD) age, years 35.8 (9.7) 57.6 (7.1) 43.3 (13.6)
Women 293 (51.6) 169 (56.7) 462 (53.3)
Comorbidities
 Mental disorders
  Other anxiety disorders 105 (18.5) 43 (14.4) 148 (17.1)
  Depressive disorders 259 (45.6) 133 (44.6) 392 (45.3)
  Bipolar disorder 9 (1.6) 5 (1.7) 14 (1.6)
  Tension headache 6 (1.1) 2 (0.7) 8 (0.9)
  Personality disorders 7 (1.2) 4 (1.3) 11 (1.3)
  Alcohol abuse/alcoholism 3 (0.5) 2 (0.7) 5 (0.6)
  Drug abuse 15 (2.6) 2 (0.7) 17 (2.0)
  Suicide attempts 13 (2.3) 5 (1.7) 18 (2.1)
 All other
 Sleep disorders 65 (11.4) 47 (15.8) 112 (12.9)
 Neoplasms 8 (1.4) 15 (5.0) 23 (2.7)
 Diabetes 12 (2.1) 36 (12.1) 48 (5.5)
 Migraine 17 (3.0) 10 (3.4) 27 (3.1)
 Ischemic heart disease 2 (0.4) 14 (4.7) 16 (1.8)
 Cerebrovascular disease 6 (1.1) 8 (2.7) 14 (1.6)
 Asthma 23 (4.0) 19 (6.4) 42 (4.8)
 Painful neuropathic disorders 54 (9.5) 45 (15.1) 99 (11.4)
 Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions
  Fatigue 71 (12.5) 45 (15.1) 116 (13.4)
  Headache 50 (8.8) 20 (6.7) 70 (8.1)
  Chest pain 55 (9.7) 31 (10.4) 86 (9.9)
  Abdominal pain 65 (11.4) 31 (10.4) 96 (11.1)
  Anxiety-related symptoms 72 (12.7) 48 (16.1) 120 (13.9)
  Any symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions 211 (37.1) 119 (39.9) 330 (38.1)
Region
 Northeast 164 (28.9) 84 (28.2) 248 (28.6)
 South 140 (24.6) 54 (18.1) 194 (22.4)
 West 92 (16.2) 55 (18.5) 147 (17.0)
 Midwest 172 (30.3) 105 (35.2) 277 (32.0)
Payer type
 HMO 138 (24.3) 63 (21.1) 201 (23.2)
 PPO 300 (52.8) 152 (51.0) 452 (52.2)
 Indemnity 25 (4.4) 22 (7.4) 47 (5.4)
 Other 33 (5.8) 19 (6.4) 52 (6.0)

*Unless otherwise noted, all values are numbers of patients (%).

GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder; HMO: Health maintenance organization; PPO: Preferred provider organization.

Berger et al.

Berger et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:177   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-177

Open Data