Table 4

Prospective associations between computer exposure at baseline and mental health outcomes (new cases) at 1-year follow-up
Current stress Sleep disturbances Symptoms of depression (two items) Reduced performance
n Cases (%) PR 95% CI n Cases (%) PR 95% CI n Cases (%) PR 95% CI n Cases (%) PR 95% CI
Computer use (CU)
Men High 440 43 (10) 1.0 0.60–1.55 398 70 (18) 1.8 1.14–2.78 173 31 (18) 1.1 0.63–2.04 400 35 (9) 2.0 1.01–3.98
Medium 409 42 (10) 1.0 0.66–1.63 373 65 (17) 1.8 1.17–2.79 187 30 (16) 1.1 0.60–1.93 388 20 (5) 1.2 0.61–2.49
Low 289 28 (10) 1.0 263 25 (10) 1.0 136 17 (12) 1.0 279 12 (4) 1.0
Women High 463 92 (20) 1.1 0.87–1.42 428 101 (24) 1.2 0.95–1.52 152 39 (26) 1.2 0.85–1.77 468 64 (14) 1.1 0.79–1.48
Medium 617 117 (19) 1.0 0.81–1.29 566 94 (17) 0.8 0.65–1.06 241 64 (27) 1.2 0.90–1.70 573 84 (15) 1.1 0.82–1.48
Low 655 122 (19) 1.0 600 128 (21) 1.0 246 56 (23) 1.0 586 75 (13) 1.0
Email/chat use
Men High 116 6 (5) 0.4 0.18–0.95 98 27 (28) 1.9 1.29–2.77 38 4 (11) 100 6 (6) 0.9 0.41–1.99
Medium 215 20 (9) 0.8 0.52–1.31 197 31 (16) 1.1 0.77–1.63 86 13 (15) 0.9 0.50–1.51 210 16 (8) 1.3 0.73–2.25
Low 807 88 (11) 1.0 740 102 (14) 1.0 373 61 (16) 1.0 757 45 (6) 1.0
Women High 136 37 (27) 1.7 1.23–2.25 118 35 (30) 1.7 1.23–2.24 26 8 (31) 1.4 0.74–2.50 129 21 (16) 1.3 0.84–1.94
Medium 348 80 (23) 1.4 1.11–1.76 325 73 (22) 1.3 1.01–1.62 133 38 (29) 1.2 0.89–1.68 329 51 (16) 1.2 0.88–1.60
Low 1248 212 (17) 1.0 1149 212 18) 1.0 477 111 (23) 1.0 1167 150 (13) 1.0
Computer gaming
Men High 136 13 (10) 0.9 0.51–1.53 107 20 (19) 1.2 0.73–1.80 43 9 (21) 1.1 0.58–1.98 108 5 (5) 0.7 0.28–1.67
Medium 176 17 (10) 0.9 0.55–1.50 156 25 (16) 1.0 0.70–1.55 73 7 (10) 0.6 0.29–1.24 161 9 (6) 0.8 0.37–1.61
Low 826 83 (10) 1.0 771 115 (15) 1.0 380 62 (16) 1.0 798 53 (7) 1.0
Women High 29 7 (24) 1.3 0.67–2.47 29 7 (24) 1.0 0.52–2.08 10 2 (20) 26 2 (8)
Medium 76 15 (20) 1.0 0.65–1.63 59 17 (29) 1.4 0.92–2.09 25 11 (44) 1.9 1.17–3.03 64 7 (11) 0.8 0.39–1.61
Low 1631 309 (19) 1.0 1509 299 (20) 1.0 605 146 (24) 1.0 1538 213 (14) 1.0
CU without breaks
Men High 280 25 (9) 0.9 0.58–1.51 250 42 (17) 1.4 0.92–2.09 100 16 (16) 0.8 0.46–1.42 253 20 (8) 1.9 0.98–3.61
Medium 454 50 (11) 1.2 0.76–1.78 418 74 (18) 1.5 1.05–2.16 202 29 (14) 0.8 0.50–1.30 438 30 (7) 1.6 0.90–3.03
Low 404 38 (9) 1.0 366 43 (12) 1.0 194 32 (16) 1.0 377 16 (4) 1.0
Women High 189 49 (26) 1.6 1.24–2.18 190 55 (29) 1.7 1.31–2.23 62 21 (34) 1.8 1.20–2.63 180 24 (13) 1.1 0.76–1.74
Medium 588 121 (21) 1.2 1.01–1.54 558 120 (22) 1.3 1.06–1.63 208 62 (30) 1.6 1.16–2.09 586 94 (16) 1.3 1.01–1.69
Low 958 161 (17) 1.0 846 147 (17) 1.0 369 76 (21) 1.0 863 105 (12) 1.0
CU causing lost sleep
Men High 174 27 (16) 1.8 1.17–2.70 146 38 (26) 2.0 1.42–2.87 53 9 (17) 1.0 0.54–2.02 155 14 (9) 2.1 1.15–3.98
Medium 243 25 (10) 1.2 0.77–1.86 230 39 (17) 1.4 0.96–1.94 104 20 (19) 1.3 0.78–2.05 239 25 (10) 2.5 1.44–4.24
Low 722 62 (9) 1.0 659 83 (13) 1.0 340 49 (14) 1.0 674 28 (4) 1.0
Women High 123 35 (28) 1.7 1.27–2.32 106 29 (27) 1.5 1.07–2.08 32 10 (31) 1.5 0.85–2.50 108 19 (18) 1.4 0.92–2.20
Medium 214 55 (26) 1.5 1.17–1.94 221 55 (25) 1.4 1.06–1.78 78 31 (40) 1.9 1.38–2.62 212 41 (19) 1.6 1.14–2.13
Low 1400 242 (17) 1.0 1270 239 (19) 1.0 529 118 (22) 1.0 1308 163 (12) 1.0

Participants who reported symptoms at baseline were excluded from analysis of the mental health outcome concerned. The study group n was: for Current stress: 1224 men and 1915 women; for Sleep disturbances: 1109 men and 1764 women; for Symptoms of depression (one item): 617 men and 791 women, for Symptoms of depression (two items): 535 men and 693 women; and for Reduced performance: 1145 men and 1802 women. Missing values (non-responses to items) were excluded from the analyses, which means that the n varied further in the analyses. The prevalence of mental health symptoms (cases and %) at 1-year follow-up in each exposure category is shown. The prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for relationship status, educational level, and occupation. PRs with a CI not including 1.00 (before rounding) are given in bold. Results of analyses with fewer than five cases are not presented, indicated as “…”.

Thomée et al.

Thomée et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:176   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-176

Open Data