Table 1

The summary of the results
Medical doctor (n=106) Nurse (n=595) Psychologist (n=46) Student (n=229) Others (n=62)
(psychiatrist / pediatrician) (n=80 / n=26)
To be diagnosed as hikikomori, how long do they withdraw from the society and keep staying in their home? 6.32±3.7 (6.85±3.9 / 4.69±2.3) 3.83±3.8 5.67±4.1 2.95±3.4 3.82±2.5
Hikikomori is NOT a disorder 2.70±1.1 (2.74±1.0 / 2.58±1.3) 2.61±1.1 2.80±1.0 2.86±1.1 2.81±1.2
Hikikomori persons shut themselves in their room the while day and rarely see their family 3.22±1.2 (3.20±1.2 / 3.27±1.2) 3.73±1.2 3.11±1.2 3.74±1.2 3.35±1.2
Hikikomori individuals sometimes go out for grocery stores and bookstores 3.52±1.1 (3.57±1.1 / 3.42±1.1) 2.91±1.3 3.61±1.1 2.86±1.2 3.33±1.2
School refusal closely relates to hikikomori 4.12±0.9 (4.11±0.9 / 4.15±1.0) 3.99±1.0 3.89±0.9 3.90±1.1 3.95±1.0
Recovery is possible in individuals with hikikomori 3.78±0.8 (3.67±0.8 / 4.04±0.7) 4.00±0.9 4.13±0.8 4.26±0.8 4.08±0.9
Hikikomori is related to biological factors such as psychiatric disorders or developmental disorders 3.87±0.9 (3.86±0.8 / 3.85±1.1) 3.30±1.0 3.70±0.8 3.17±1.0 3.48±0.9
Hikikomori is related to psychological factors such as bullying at school or frustration at workplace 3.99±0.8 (3.91±0.7 / 4.23±0.9) 4.24±0.7 4.02±0.6 4.39±0.7 4.16±0.6
Hikikomori is related to social factors such as family environment which accepts the situation 4.02±0.7 (3.96±0.7 / 4.19±0.7) 4.03±0.8 3.85±0.7 4.16±0.8 3.87±0.7
Hikikomori is related to Japanese society, culture or national characteristics 3.61±1.0 (3.65±0.9 / 3.50±1.2) 3.16±1.1 3.30±0.9 3.40±1.0 3.18±1.0

The results are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). On the five-point Likert scale, score 5 means the strong agreement.

Tateno et al.

Tateno et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:169   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-169

Open Data