|The summary of the results|
|Medical doctor (n=106)||Nurse (n=595)||Psychologist (n=46)||Student (n=229)||Others (n=62)|
|(psychiatrist / pediatrician) (n=80 / n=26)|
|To be diagnosed as hikikomori, how long do they withdraw from the society and keep staying in their home?||6.32±3.7 (6.85±3.9 / 4.69±2.3)||3.83±3.8||5.67±4.1||2.95±3.4||3.82±2.5|
|Hikikomori is NOT a disorder||2.70±1.1 (2.74±1.0 / 2.58±1.3)||2.61±1.1||2.80±1.0||2.86±1.1||2.81±1.2|
|Hikikomori persons shut themselves in their room the while day and rarely see their family||3.22±1.2 (3.20±1.2 / 3.27±1.2)||3.73±1.2||3.11±1.2||3.74±1.2||3.35±1.2|
|Hikikomori individuals sometimes go out for grocery stores and bookstores||3.52±1.1 (3.57±1.1 / 3.42±1.1)||2.91±1.3||3.61±1.1||2.86±1.2||3.33±1.2|
|School refusal closely relates to hikikomori||4.12±0.9 (4.11±0.9 / 4.15±1.0)||3.99±1.0||3.89±0.9||3.90±1.1||3.95±1.0|
|Recovery is possible in individuals with hikikomori||3.78±0.8 (3.67±0.8 / 4.04±0.7)||4.00±0.9||4.13±0.8||4.26±0.8||4.08±0.9|
|Hikikomori is related to biological factors such as psychiatric disorders or developmental disorders||3.87±0.9 (3.86±0.8 / 3.85±1.1)||3.30±1.0||3.70±0.8||3.17±1.0||3.48±0.9|
|Hikikomori is related to psychological factors such as bullying at school or frustration at workplace||3.99±0.8 (3.91±0.7 / 4.23±0.9)||4.24±0.7||4.02±0.6||4.39±0.7||4.16±0.6|
|Hikikomori is related to social factors such as family environment which accepts the situation||4.02±0.7 (3.96±0.7 / 4.19±0.7)||4.03±0.8||3.85±0.7||4.16±0.8||3.87±0.7|
|Hikikomori is related to Japanese society, culture or national characteristics||3.61±1.0 (3.65±0.9 / 3.50±1.2)||3.16±1.1||3.30±0.9||3.40±1.0||3.18±1.0|
The results are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). On the five-point Likert scale, score 5 means the strong agreement.
Tateno et al.
Tateno et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:169 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-169