Table 2

Associations of major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese adults, NHANES 2005-2006 (N = 2,439)

Odds Ratio*


Model 1

Model 2

Model 3


Major depressive symptoms

Waist circumference†

1.03 (1.01-1.05)

1.03 (1.01-1.05)

1.03 (1.00-1.05)

Wald P-value

0.002

0.005

0.031

Abdominal obesity‡

yes

3.01 (2.00-4.55)

2.18 (1.35-3.59)

1.99 (1.18-3.38)

no

1.00

1.00

1.00

Wald P-value

< 0.001

< 0.001

0.005

Moderate-to severe depressive symptoms

(PHQ score ≥ 10)

Waist circumference†

1.02 (1.01-1.04)

1.02 (1.01-1.04)

1.02 (1.00-1.03)

Wald P-value

0.003

0.004

0.074

Abdominal obesity‡

yes

2.89 (1.70-4.91)

2.56 (1.34-4.90)

2.26 (1.15-4.44)

no

1.00

1.00

1.00

Wald P-value

< 0.001

0.002

0.010


*Model 1: unadjusted, Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, race, education, family poverty-income ratio, serum cotinine concentrations, physical activity and heavy alcohol drinking, Model 3: adjusted for the same set of variables as in Model 2 plus coexistence of the number of chronic conditions (including hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic kidney disease and cancer).

†Used as continuous variable in the models

‡Used as categorical variable (defined as waist circumference > 108 cm for men and > 88 cm for women)

Zhao et al. BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:130   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-11-130

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