Table 4

ANOVA statistics included post hoc IQ adjustments for tests of executive functions. The statistics F, p, and ηp2 presented for ANOVAs without IQ adjustments. On working memory tests, higher scores reflect better results, whereas on Conners' CPT II, higher scores reflect poorer results.

Test and measured function

N

F

p

ηp2

Post hoc test

Post hoc adjusted for IQ


Measures of working memory

Control:18

ADHD-psych: 20

ADHD-prison: 30


Digit Span

21.29

< .001

.396

C>Psych > Prison

C > Psych = Prison


Span Board

24.88

< .001

.434

C>Psych > Prison

C > Psych = Prison


Conners' CPT II

Control:18

ADHD-psych: 20

ADHD-prison: 27


CCPT reaction time


Hit RT

.48

.617

.015

C = Psych = Prison

C = Psych = Prison


CCPT variability


Variability

26.38

< .001

.460

C = Psych < Prison

C = Psych < Prison


Hit RT block change

.29

.749

.009

C = Psych = Prison

C = Psych = Prison


Hit SE block change

.165

.848

.005

C = Psych = Prison

C = Psych = Prison


Hit RT ISI change

1.22

.302

.038

C = Psych = Prison

C = Psych = Prison


Hit SE ISI change

.662

.519

.021

C = Psych = Prison

C = Psych = Prison


Perseverations

8.66

< .001

.218

C = Psych < Prison

C = Psych < Prison


CCPT accuracy


Omission errors

16.23

< .001

.344

C = Psych < Prison

C = Psych < Prison


Commission errors

12.61

< .001

.289

C = Psych < Prison

C = Psych < Prison


Detectability (d')

9.21

< .001

.229

C < Prison

Psych = C

Psych = Prison

C < Prison

Psych = C

Psych = Prison


Response style (beta)

4.27

.018

.121

Psych < Prison

Psych = C

Prison = C

Psych < Prison

Psych = C

Prison = C


Note: CCPT = Conners' Continuous Performance Test; RT = reaction time; SE = standard error; ISI = interstimulus interval; N/A = not applicable

Ginsberg et al. BMC Psychiatry 2010 10:112   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-112

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