Table 2

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Assessed Groups; ADHD-prison group, ADHD-psychiatry group, Healthy controls. Not applicable = N/A.

ADHD-prison, n = 30

ADHD-psychiatry, n = 20

Controls,

n = 18

F or

χ2

p


Age, mean, (SD), y

34.4 (10.67)

33.4 (8.65)

35.2 (9.85)

.14

.87e


Educational level, nine-year compulsory school or less, n (%)

25 (83)

6 (30)

1 (6)

39.28

< .001e


ADHD, combined, n (%)

28 (93)

18 (90)

N/A


ADHD, inattentive, n (%)

2 (7)

2 (10)

N/A


≥ 1 current co-morbid disorder, n (%)a

15 (50)

12 (60)

N/A

.569


Autism spectrum disorderb

7 (23)

N/A

N/A


Mood and anxiety disorder, lifetimea

22 (73)

N/A

N/A


Personality disorders, (N = 23)c


Antisocial, n (%)

22 (96)

N/A

N/A


Borderline, n (%)

17 (74)

N/A

N/A


Paranoid, n (%)

17 (74)

N/A

N/A


Narcissistic, n (%)

15 (65)

N/A

N/A


Obsessive-Compulsive, n (%)

12 (52)

N/A

N/A


Passive-Aggressive, n (%)

11 (48)

N/A

N/A


Avoidant, n (%)

11 (48)

N/A

N/A


Depressive, n (%)

8 (35)

N/A

N/A


Dependent, n (%)

7 (30)

N/A

N/A


Schizotypal, n (%)

5 (22)

N/A

N/A


Schizoid, n (%)

2 (9)

N/A

N/A


Histrionic, n (%)

0 (0)

N/A

N/A


Substance use disorder, n (%)a

30 (100)

N/A

N/A


Amphetamine preferred, n (%)

19 (63)

N/A

N/A


Cocaine preferred, n (%)

4 (13)

N/A

N/A


Alcohol preferred, n (%)

4 (13)

N/A

N/A


Psychopathy, n (%)d

3 (10)

N/A

N/A


Concomitant psychotropic's, n (%)

13 (43)

N/A

N/A


Onset of alcohol, mean (SD), y

11.9 (1.81)

N/A

N/A


Onset of illegal drugs, mean (SD), y

14.0 (2.41)

N/A

N/A


Onset of criminality, mean (SD), y

11.2 (3.40)

N/A

N/A


Educational assistance at school, n (%)

24 (80)

N/A

N/A


Child psychiatry/school health, n (%)

18 (60)

N/A

N/A


ADHD diagnosed in childhood, n (%)

2 (7)

N/A

N/A


aAccording to DSM-IV by the SCID I interview, bAccording to DSM IV, Autism spectrum disorder includes both Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS, cFrequencies of personality disorders were estimated by increasing the cut-off level for each personality disorder by one score, on the SCID II PQ to equal the cut-off score of the SCID II interview, dPsychopathy was defined as a total sum score of ≥30 by the PCL-R, eAnalyses of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables.

Ginsberg et al. BMC Psychiatry 2010 10:112   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-112

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