Open Access Open Badges Research article

Factors underlying inadequate parents’ awareness regarding pediatrics immunization: findings of cross-sectional study in Mosul- Iraq

Omer Qutaiba B Al-lela1*, Mohd Baidi Bahari2, Muhannad RM Salih3, Mustafa G Al-abbassi4, Ramadan M Elkalmi5 and Shazia Q Jamshed5

Author Affiliations

1 School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Duhok (UOD), Duhok, Iraq

2 Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Kedah, Malaysia

3 Pharmacy Department, Al-Rashed University College, Baghdad, Iraq

4 Pharmacy College, Al-Mustansaria University, Baghdad, Iraq

5 International Islamic University Malaysia, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, Pahang, Malaysia

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BMC Pediatrics 2014, 14:29  doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-29

Published: 31 January 2014



Since last 100 years, immunization rate is one of the best public health outcome and service indicators. However, the immunization system is still imperfect; there are many countries that still have unvaccinated children. Parental decisions regarding immunization are very important to improve immunization rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between parental knowledge-practice (KP) regarding immunization with family and immunization providers’ factors.


This is a prospective cross-sectional study design. Immunization knowledge and practices among 528 Iraqi parents were evaluated through validated questionnaire. Familial data and immunization provider’s characteristics were collected from parents through interview.


More than half of respondents/study population (66.1%) have adequate knowledge- practice scores. Significant associations were noted for knowledge-practice groups with father’s education level, mother’s education level, mother’s age at delivery, number of preschool children, parents gender, family income, provider types, and birth place (p < 0.05).


Immunization campaigns and awareness are required to improve parents’ knowledge and practice regarding immunization. The study results reinforce recommendations for use of educational programmes to improve the immunization knowledge and practice.

Immunization; Iraq; Parents; Knowledge; Practice