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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Validating the weight gain of preterm infants between the reference growth curve of the fetus and the term infant

Tanis R Fenton1*, Roseann Nasser2, Misha Eliasziw3, Jae H Kim4, Denise Bilan2 and Reg Sauve15

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, The University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada

2 Regina Qu’Appelle Health Region, 1440-14th Avenue, Regina, Sask S4P 0W5, Canada

3 Department of Public Health & Community Medicine, Tufts University - School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Room 114, Boston, MA 02111, USA

4 Division of Neonatology, UC San Diego Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Drive MPF 1140, San Diego, CA 92103-8774, USA

5 Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary, Calgary AB T2N 4Z6, Canada

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BMC Pediatrics 2013, 13:92  doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-92

Published: 11 June 2013

Abstract

Background

Current fetal-infant growth references have an obvious growth disjuncture around 40 week gestation overlapping where the fetal and infant growth references are combined. Graphical smoothening of the disjuncture to connect the matching percentile curves has never been validated. This study was designed to compare weight gain patterns of contemporary preterm infants with a fetal-infant growth reference (derived from a meta-analysis) to validate the previous smoothening assumptions and inform the revision of the Fenton chart.

Methods

Growth and descriptive data of preterm infants (23 to 31 weeks) from birth through 10 weeks post term age were collected in three cities in Canada and the USA between 2001 and 2010 (n = 977). Preterm infants were grouped by gestational age into 23–25, 26–28, and 29–31 weeks. Comparisons were made between the weight data of the preterm cohort and the fetal-infant growth reference.

Results

Median weight gain curves of the three preterm gestational age groups were almost identical and remained between the 3rd and the 50th percentiles of the fetal-infant-growth-reference from birth through 10 weeks post term. The growth velocity of the preterm infants decreased in a pattern similar to the decreased velocity of the fetus and term infant estimates, from a high of 17–18 g/kg/day between 31–34 weeks to rates of 4–5 g/kg/day by 50 weeks in each gestational age group. The greatest discrepancy in weight gain velocity between the preterm infants and the fetal estimate was between 37 and 40 weeks; preterm infants grew more rapidly than the fetus. The infants in this study regained their birthweight earlier compared to those in the 1999 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development report.

Conclusion

The weight gain velocity of preterm infants through the period of growth data disjuncture between 37 and 50 weeks gestation is consistent with and thus validates the smoothening assumptions made between preterm and post-term growth references.