Table 3

The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) of the children and adolescents participating in HELIOS, for all participants together and stratified according to SDS-BMI group
Total (n = 80) SDS-BMI < median (n = 39) SDS-BMI >= median (n = 41) OR (95% CI)
High triglycerides 9 (11.2) 3 (7.7) 6 (14.6) 2.47 (0.42, 14.64)
Low HDL-cholesterol 52 (65.0) 24 (61.5) 28 (68.3) 1.49 (0.55, 4.94)
Hypertension 25 (31.2) 9 (23.1) 16 (39.0) 5.51 (1.37, 22.18)*
Impaired fasting glucose 1 (1.2) 1 (2.6) 0 (0) -
Impaired glucose tolerance 5 (6.2) 4 (10.3) 1 (2.4) -
DMII 0 (0.0) - - -
High HOMA-IR 30 (37.5) 9 (23.1)** 21 (51.2)** 5.35 (1.39, 20.63)*
1 CRF (only obesity) 16 (20.0) 10 (25.6) 6 (14.6) NA
2 CRF (1 in addition to obesity) 39 (48.8) 18 (46.2) 21 (51.2) NA
>= 3 CRFs (>= 2 in addition to obesity) 25 (31.3) 11 (28.2) 14 (34.1) NA

Data are n (% of total) and OR with 95% CI.

OR – Odds Ratio; SDS-BMI – standard deviation of body mass index; CI – confidence interval; HDL – High Density Lipoprotein; HOMA-IR – homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance: DMII – Diabetes Mellitus type II.

Reference cut off points cardiometabolic risk from ‘The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents – an IDF consensus report’ by Zimmet et al. [27].

Reference cut off points HOMA-IR from ‘Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods’ by Kurtoğlu et al. [25], ‘Homeostasis model assessment is more reliable than the fasting glucose/insulin ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for assessing insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents’ by Keskin et al. for postpubertal stage [26].

CRFs are based on the IDF criteria including obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and DMII. Since all participants fulfilled the IDF criterion for obesity, none of the participants had zero CRF. Participants with 1 CRF only had obesity and none of the other CRFs. Participants with 2 CRFs had 1 CRF in addition to obesity. Participants with 3 or more CRFs had 2 or more CRFS in addition to obesity. HOMA-IR is not taken into account in the number of CRFs.

Median is 3.49.

- Insufficient sample size.

* P value <0.05.

** P value < 0.01.

NA Not applicable.

Makkes et al.

Makkes et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:62   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-62

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