Table 1

Demographic characteristics, quality of life and comorbidity of the children and adolescents participating in HELIOS, for all participants together and stratified according to age group
Total (n = 80) Children (n = 16) Adolescents (n = 64)
N 80 16 64
Age (y) 14.8 (2.3) 11.3 (1.2)* 15.7 (1.6)*
Male/Female (%) 33.8/66.2 50/50 29.7/70.3
Ethnicities (%)
  Native Dutch 55.0 68.8 51.6
  Immigrants 45.0 31.2 45.5
o  Western (% of total) 5.0 0.0 6.3
o  Non-Western (% of total)
       ▪ Moroccan 5.0 6.3 4.7
       ▪ Dutch Antilles/Aruba 5.0 0.0 6.3
       ▪  Surinam 5.0 0.0 6.3
       ▪ Turkish 16.3 18.8 15.6
       ▪ Other Non-Western 6.3 6.3 6.3
Level of education of the parents (%)
  Low 36.3 62.5† 29.7†
  Medium 40.0 25.0† 43.8†
  High 17.5 6.2† 20.3†
SES (%)
  Below average 62.5 73.3 63.9
  Above average 32.5 26.7 36.1
Household situation (%)
  Married/living together 55.0 56.2 54.7
  Divorced 33.8 37.5 32.8
  One parent family(mother) 7.5 0.0 9.4
  Other situation 3.8 6.2 3.1
Quality of life
  EQ-5D utility score 0.79 (0.22) 0.72 (0.27) 0.80 (0.20)
  EQ VAS 69.1 (21.2) 76.1 (21.3) 67.4 (21.0)
Comorbidity (%)
  Acanthosis nigricans 60.0 56.2 60.9
  Blount’s disease 3.8 0.0 4.7
  Gallstones 3.8 12.5* 1.6*
  Hirsutism (only girls) 9.4 12.5 9.1
  Pseudogynecomastia (only boys) 92.6 100.0 89.5

Data are mean (SD).

Percentages are actual percentages, not valid percentages.

SD – standard deviation; SES – Socio-economic status.

A participant falls in the “Children” group if aged 8 to 13 years and falls in the “Adolescents” group if aged 13 to 19 years.

If both parents were born in the Netherlands, a participant was categorized as Native Dutch; if one of the parents was born abroad, a participant was categorized as Immigrant. Immigrant is further divided into Western of Non-Western, of which Non-Western if further subdivided into Morocco, former Dutch Antilles and Aruba, Surinam, Turkey and Other Non-Western.

SES below average corresponds to a status score of 0 or higher, SES above average corresponds to a status score below 0.

* P value <0.05.

† P value <0.10.

Makkes et al.

Makkes et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:62   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-62

Open Data