Table 1

Descriptive statistics
Demographics Inpatient Outpatient Total
Patients (%)
Patients by race/ethnicity 33 (39.28%) 51 (60.71%) 84 (100%)
White, Non-Hispanic 25 (75.76%) 38 (74.51%) 63 (75.00%)
African-American 2 (6.06%) 3 (5.88%) 5 (5.95%)
Hispanic 5 (15.15%) 8 (15.69%) 13 (15.48%)
Other 1 (3.03%) 2 (3.92%) 3 (3.57%)
% Female patients 21 (63.63%) 21 (41.18%) 42 (50%)
Age at diagnosis (Average±SD) 10.13±4.31 10.52±4.37 10.36±4.32
Distance to the hospital (in miles) 18.08±22.30 15.46±15.17 16.49±18.22
Patients living inside 10 miles to hospital 18 (54.55%) 29 (56.86%) 47 (55.95%)
Patients with public insurance 14 (42.42%) 16 (31.37%) 30 (35.71%)
Healthcare services utilization Inpatient Outpatient Total
Hospital length of stay in days 1.84±0.75 0.72±1.02
Outpatient diabetes visits within 10 days of diagnosis date† 1.76±0.71 2.61±0.90 2.27±0.92
Inpatient diabetes visits within 10 days of diagnosis date† 0.97±0.39 0.02±0.14 0.39±0.54
Outpatient diabetes visits within 1 year of diagnosis date* 6.87±1.71 7.73±2.01 7.39±1.93
Phone calls received within 1 year of diagnosis date 14.39±8.68 11.02±8.15 12.35±8.48
Clinical indicators for T1DM at diagnosis Inpatient Outpatient Total
Patients pH 29 (87.88%) 7 (13.73%) 36 (42.86%)
pH† 7.20±0.14 7.33±0.05 7.23±0.14
Patients Bicarb 33 (100%) 43 (84.31%) 76 (90.48%)
Bicarb† 14.94±7.81 23.98±3.92 20.05±7.41
Patients Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 31 (93.94%) 42 (82.35%) 73 (86.90%)
BUN 16.94±8.53 14.24±3.94 15.38±6.40
Metabolic outcome: HbA1C Inpatient Outpatient Total
Patients HbA1C at diagnosis 33 (100%) 51 (100%) 84 (100%)
HbA1C at diagnosis 11.60%±2.08% 10.70%±2.34% 11.05%±2.27%
Patients HbA1C 1 year post-diagnosis 33 (100%) 51 (100%) `84 (100%)
HbA1c 1 year post-diagnosis 7.54%±1.56% 7.37%±0.89% 7.43%±1.20%
Metabolic outcome: HbA1c adjusted by patient’s age Inpatient Outpatient Total
HbA1c at diagnosis 3.72±2.16 2.83±2.46 3.17±2.37
HbA1c 1 year post-diagnosis −0.34±1.59 −0.50±0.88 −0.44±1.21
T1DM at diagnosis
HbA1c ≤ 6.5% 1 (1.96%) 1 (1.19%)
HbA1c > 6.5% 33 (100%) 50 (98.04%) 83 (98.81%)
T1DM 1 year post-diagnosis diagnosis
HbA1c ≤ 6.5% 8 (24.24%) 8 (15.69%) 16 (19.05%)
HbA1c > 6.5% 25 (75.76%) 43 (84.31%) 68 (80.95%)

Note: ±SD, Standard deviation. *, § and † indicates statistically significant at the 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001 levels, respectively. HbA1C levels at diagnosis in % and (mmol/mol units) are 11.6% (103 mmol/mol), 10.7% (93 mmol/mol) and 11.1% (97 mmol/mol) in the inpatient, outpatient and total group respectively. HbA1C levels at 1 year post diagnosis in % and (mmol/mol units) are 7.5% (58 mmol/mol), 7.4% (56 mmol/mol) and 7.4% (57 mmol/mol) in the inpatient, outpatient and total group respectively. Blood glucose levels higher than 11 mmol/L (i.e. hyperglycemia) with a venous pH below 7.3 and/or blood bicarbonate level below 15 mmol/L indicates pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is normal in a range of 6–20 mg/dL. Pediatric endocrinology care visits include first visit.

Jasinski et al.

Jasinski et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:55   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-55

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