Table 1

Pre- to post-intervention scores in a cohort of preschoolers treated with group ESDM
Time 1 Time 2
Mean SD Mean SD t df p Cohen’s df
Mullen Scales of Early learning
Visual Reception DQa 35.9 20.6 51.5 28.2 −3.9 19 0.001** 0.63
Fine Motor DQa 47.9 26.1 51.3 21.6 −1.1 20 0.28 0.14
Receptive Language DQa 27.6 21.5 38.7 24.2 −4.4 18 <0.001** 0.48
Expressive Language DQa 32.6 18.7 40.7 21.8 −4.0 20 0.001** 0.40
Overall MSEL DQb 36.8 19.7 46.7 22.6 −5.6 18 <0.001** 0.47
Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales-II Scale scores
Receptive Communicationc 7.6 3.5 9.3 3.4 −3.2 15 0.005** 0.49
Expressive Communicationc 7.6 2.8 7.8 2.8 −0.5 17 0.64 0.07
Written Communicationc 11.7 2.4 11.9 3.7 −0.3 17 0.76 0.06
Personal Daily Living Skillsc 8.2 2.5 8.2 2.0 −0.2 16 0.88 0.00
Domestic Daily Living Skillsc 10.0 2.1 10.6 3.3 −1.0 17 0.34 0.22
Community Daily Living Skillsc 9.8 2.7 9.2 3.4 1.3 17 0.20 0.20
Interpersonal Relationshipsc 8.1 2.5 8.7 3.0 −1.2 16 0.24 0.22
Play and Leisure Timec 7.9 2.0 7.5 2.1 1.3 15 0.20 −0.20g
Coping Skillsc 11.4 3.1 11.5 2.9 −0.2 15 0.84 0.03
Gross Motor Skillsc 9.3 2.8 11.7 2.7 −4.9 16 <0.001** 0.87
Fine Motor Skillsc 9.3 3.9 9.7 2.8 −0.9 15 0.40 0.12
Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales -II Standard Domain Scores
Communicationd 61.6 14.1 65.3 20.1 −1.1 15 0.30 0.21
Socialisationd 66.8 13.0 67.1 14.5 −0.2 15 0.88 0.02
Daily Living Skillsd 64.2 14.1 64.9 16.7 −0.3 16 0.75 0.05
Motor Skillsd 66.4 17.8 73.7 14.2 −2.7 15 0.02* 0.45
Adaptive Behaviour Composited 61.9 13.9 63.6 14.4 −0.9 14 0.38 0.12
SCQ Total Scoree 18.5 7.2 15.7 7.1 2.2 18 0.04* −0.39g

Note: * p<.05, ** p<0.01, SCQ = Social Communication Questionnaire.

a. DQ = (age equivalent score/chronological age) × 100.

b. Overall MSEL DQ = (Visual Reception DQ + Fine Motor DQ+ Receptive Language DQ + Expressive Language DQ)/4.

c. V-Scale score (mean: 15, SD: 3).

d. Standard score (mean: 100, SD: 15).

e. Range = 0–40. Scores of 15 or more denote probable ASD.

f. Following the recommendations of Dunlap et al. [31] Cohen’s d sores were calculated using the pooled standard deviation score uncorrected for the correlation between pre-post scores.

g. Negative effect sizes denote a reduction from pre-to-post. For the SCQ Total Score, lower scores are indicative of fewer ASD symptoms.

Eapen et al.

Eapen et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:3   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-3

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