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Open Access Research article

Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents

Anna Taddio12*, Vibhuti Shah3, Eman Leung4, Jane Wang5, Chaitya Parikh6, Sarah Smart7, Ross Hetherington8, Moshe Ipp9, Rebecca Pillai Riddell10, Michael Sgro11, Aleksandra Jovicic12 and Linda Franck13

Author affiliations

1 Clinical Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2, Canada

2 Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada

3 Department of Paediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X5, Canada

4 Knowledge Translation Program, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, 60 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada

5 Undergraduate pharmacy division, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2, Canada

6 Graduate Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144, College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3M2

7 Graduate Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144, College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2, Canada

8 AboutKidsHealth, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada

9 Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada

10 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada

11 Department of Paediatrics, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, 60 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 1W8

12 Knowledge Translation Program, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital 60 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada

13 Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 2 Koret Way, N411F, Box 0606, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA

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Citation and License

BMC Pediatrics 2013, 13:23  doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-23

Published: 8 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants.

Methods

Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video.

Results

Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents’ performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video.

Conclusions

Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about management of vaccination pain. Future studies are planned to determine the impact of these educational tools when introduced in clinical settings on parent behaviors during infant vaccinations.

Keywords:
Vaccination; Pain management; Infant/child; Health information; Knowledge translation; Implementation; Parent education