Table 4

Effect estimates of overweight/obesity on incident physician-diagnosed asthma by sex
Study N Years follow-up Exposure Outcome Reference Effect estimate Total adjusted Boys adjusted Girls adjusted
Effect estimate (95% CI) Effect estimate (95% CI) Effect estimate (95% CI)
Gilliland et al., 20031[45] 3792 4 Overweight (>85th%) New-onset asthma BMI ≤85th% RR 1.52 (1.14, 2.03) 2.06 (1.33, 3.18) 1.25 (0.83, 1.88)
Obesity (>95th%) New-onset asthma BMI ≤95th% 1.60 (1.08, 2.36) 2.29 (1.35, 3.88) 1.10 (0.60, 2.05)
Gold et al., 20032[46] 9828 avg. 5 BMI at entry (Z-score) Asthma with any wheeze N/A RR Not reported 1.05 (0.83, 1.33) 1.43 (1.09, 1.88)
BMI at entry Quintile 1 Asthma with any wheeze Quintile 1 Reference Reference
0.42 (0.21, 0.83) 1.37 (0.69, 2.70)
Quintile 2 1.01 (0.59, 1.73) 1.83 (0.95, 3.53)
Quintile 3 1.13 (0.67, 1.91) 1.76 (0.89, 3.46)
Quintile 4 1.04 (0.60, 1.82) 2.24 (1.14, 4.40)
Mamun et al., 20073[47] 2812 9 Z-score of BMI at age 5 years Asthma at age 14 N/A OR 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) 0.87 (0.75, 1.01) 1.14 (1.00, 1.29)
Mannino et al., 20064[48] 4393 avg. 6 Overweight/Obese (≥85th%) at baseline Incident asthma BMI 25th-84th% HR 1.2 (0.9, 1.7) 1.6 (1.1, 2.4) 0.8 (0.5, 1.4)
Overweight/Obese (≥85th%) 4-5 years old 1.8 (1.2, 2.6) 1.4 (0.9, 2.6) 2.3 (1.2, 4.4)
Overweight/Obese (≥85th%) 6-7 years old 1.3 (0.7, 2.1) 1.6 (0.8, 3.2) 0.9 (0.4, 2.0)
Overweight/Obese (≥85th%) 8-9 years old 1.2 (0.6, 2.4) 1.2 (0.5, 3.2) 1.3 (0.5, 3.4)
always Overweight/obese 2.0 (1.3, 3.1) 2.4 (1.4, 4.4) 1.5 (0.7, 2.9)
Zhang et al., 20105[49] 259 3 Normal Weight (<85th%) at 3 years Incident asthma at 6 years Overweight (≥85th%) OR 1.04 (0.50, 2.15) Not reported
5 Incident asthma at 8 years 1.51 (0.69, 3.30)
238 1 Normal Weight (<85th%) at 5 years Incident asthma at 6 years Overweight (≥85th%) 0.91 (0.45, 1.88)
3 Incident asthma at 8 years 1.31 (0.61, 2.82)
Ho et al., 20116[50] 4052 1 Underweight Physician-diagnosed asthma Normal weight OR Not reported 0.76 (0.49, 1.18) 0.79 (0.49, 1.26)
Overweight 1.02 (0.67, 1.55) 1.12 (0.76, 1.67)
Obese 1.04 (0.69, 1.56) 1.75 (1.18, 2.61)
Change in BMI (per unit of BMI increase in kg/m2) N/A 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 1.01 (0.90, 1.14)

1Gilliland et al., 2003: RR adjusted for race/ethnicity, community, sex-specific effects of allergy, and history of wheezing.

2Gold et al., 2003: RR adjusted for city, race, age, parental education, air-conditioning, being an only child, single-parent family, and maternal smoking at entry.

3Mamun et al., 2007: OR adjusted for maternal age at birth, education, income, maternal smoking, birth weight, and breastfeeding.

4Mannino et al., 2006: HR adjusted for sex and prenatal maternal smoking.

5Zhang et al., 2010: OR adjusted for sex, maternal asthma, environmental factors during the first year, and wheezing with rhinovirus infection.

6Ho et al., 2011: OR adjusted for exercise frequency, parents with asthma, parental education, breastfeeding, pet(s), household fungus/mold, air-conditioning usage, smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

Egan et al.

Egan et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:121   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-121

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