Table 3

Multivariable analysis of the association between mothers’ education and child stunting – with imputed data
Factor Model 1 Coef. (95 % CI) p-val Model 2 Coef. (95 % CI) p-val Model 3 Coef. (95 % CI) p-val
Mother Education
Secondary + (ref.) - - -
Primary and below 1.29 (1.11, 1.51) 0.001 1.30 (1.11, 1.52) 0.001 1.26 (1.08, 1.48) 0.004
Child’s Sex
Female (ref.) - - -
Male 1.57 (1.40, 1.77) 0.000 1.57 (1.40, 1.77) 0.000
Child’s Birth Weight
Above 2500 (ref.) - - -
Less than 2500 2.80 (2.12, 3.70) 0.000 2.72 (2.06 , 3.60) 0.000
Mother's Age
15-19 (ref.) - - -
20-24 1.03 (0.83, 1.27) 0.818
25-29 1.04 (0.82, 1.33) 0.734
30-34 1.04 (0.78, 1.39) 0.787
35 > 1.13 (0.82, 1.56) 0.471
Mother’s Marital Status
Curr. in union (ref.) - - -
Ever in union 1.47 (1.18, 1.84) 0.001
Never married 1.56 (1.25, 1.94) 0.000
Mother’s Parity
First birth (ref.) - - -
2 births 1.31 (1.11, 1.55) 0.002
3 and above 1.39 (1.14, 1.69) 0.001
Mother’s Ethnicity
Kikuyu (ref.) - - -
Luhya 0.91 (0.75, 1.11) 0.350
Luo 0.88 (0.73, 1.05) 0.162
Kamba 1.03 (0.85, 1.23) 0.781
Others 1.01 (0.44, 2.30) 0.978
Number of observations 4770 4770 4770
Log-Likelihood −3165.2 −3105.7 −3080.69
Factor Model 4 Coef. (95 % CI) p-val Model 5 Coef. (95 % CI) p-val Model 6 Coef. (95 % CI) p-val
Mother’s Education
Secondary + (ref.) - - -
Primary and below 1.24 (1.05, 1.46) 0.010 1.22 (1.03,1.43) 0.018 1.21 (1.02,1.43) 0.025
Child’s Sex
Female (ref.) - - -
Male 1.59 (1.41, 1.80) 0.000 1.60 (1.42,1.80) 0.000 1.60 (1.42,1.80) 0.000
Child’s Birth Weight
Above 2500 (ref.) - - -
Less than 2500 2.99 (2.25, 3.97) 0.000 2.96 (2.23,3.93) 0.000 2.96 (2.23,3.93) 0.000
Mother's Age
15-19 (ref.) - - -
20-24 1.04 (0.84, 1.29) 0.689 1.05 (0.85,1.30) 0.655 1.05 (0.85,1.30) 0.642
25-29 1.10 (0.86, 1.41) 0.426 1.12 (0.88,1.43) 0.357 1.12 (0.88,1.44) 0.349
30-34 1.11 (0.83, 1.48) 0.494 1.12 (0.84,1.51) 0.437 1.12 (0.84,1.51) 0.432
35 > 1.20 (0.87, 1.67) 0.270 0.21 (0.87,1.68) 0.258 1.21 (0.87,1.68) 0.254
Mother’s Marital status
Currently in union (ref.) - - -
Ever in union 1.41 (1.13, 1.77) 0.003 1.37 (1.09,1.72) 0.007 1.36 (1.09,1.71) 0.007
Never married 1.64 (1.14, 1.78) 0.002 1.35 (1.08,1.70) 0.009 1.35 (1.08,1.69) 0.010
Mother’s Parity
First birth (ref.)
2 births 1.23 (1.04, 1.47) 0.016 1.21 (1.02,1.44) 0.028 1.21 (1.02,1.44) 0.028
3 and above 1.22 (1.00, 1.49) 0.054 1.16 (0.95,1.43) 0.151 1.16 (0.94,1.42) 0.156
Mother’s Ethnicity
Kikuyu (ref.) - - -
Luhya 0.83 (0.68, 1.01) 0.063 0.82 (0.67,1.00) 0.047 0.74 (0.67,1.00) 0.047
Luo 0.78 (0.65, 0.95) 0.013 0.77 (0.64,0.94) 0.008 0.77 (0.64,0.93) 0.008
Kamba 0.97 (0.80, 1.17) 0.743 0.98 (0.81,1.18) 0.822 0.99 (0.82,1.20) 0.924
Others 0.97 (0.42, 2.21) 0.937 0.99 (0.43, 2.26) 0.975 0.99 (0.43,2.26) 0.980
Pregnancy Intentions
Wanted now (ref.) - - -
Wanted later 1.38 (1.20, 1.58) 0.000 1.37 (1.19,1.57) 0.000 1.36 (1.19,1.56) 0.000
Not ever wanted 1.19 (0.96, 1.44) 0.113 1.17 (0.95,1.43) 0.132 1.16 (0.95,1.42) 0.157
Ante-natal Visits
Above 4 (ref.) - - -
Less than 4 0.95 (0.84, 1.08) 0.454 0.95 (0.83,1.07) 0.398 0.95 (0.83,1.07) 0.384
Place of Delivery
Health Facility (ref.)
TBA & Home 1.39 (1.20, 1.61) 0.000 1.38 (1.19, 1.60) 0.000 1.39 (1.20,1.61) 0.000
Others (enroute to hospital) 0.98 (0.67, 1.42) 0.903 1.01 (0.69,1.47) 0.958 1.02 (0.70,1.50) 0.905
Knowledge when to introduce other foods
Yes (ref.) - - -
No 1.07 (0.94, 1.22) 0.299 1.07 (0.94,1.22) 0.324 1.07 (0.94,1.22) 0.317
Social Economic Status
Lowest (ref.) - - -
Middle 0.93 (0.80,1.07) 0.312 0.93 (0.80,1.08) 0.333
Highest 0.77 (0.66,0.91) 0.001 0.78 (0.66,0.66) 0.002
Slum of Residence
Korogocho (ref.) - - -
Viwandani 0.96 (0.84,1.11) 0.590
Number of observations 4770 4770 4770
Log-Likelihood −3055.98 −3050.38 −3050.2

Abuya et al.

Abuya et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:80   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-80

Open Data