Table 5

Outcome prediction at 36 weeks gestational age: uni- and multivariate association of clinical and demographic parameters present by 36 weeks gestational age with adverse outcome, and with unfavourable outcome
ADVERSE OUTCOME (severe ND or death after 360/7weeks PMA versus favourable outcome or moderate ND)
Univariate model† Multivariate model‡
OR(95%-CI) p-value OR(95%-CI) p-value
Gestational age (weeks) 0.81 (0.65 - 1.02) 0.077 1.00 (0.76 - 1.32) 0.98
BW z-score 0.85 (0.64 - 1.13) 0.271 NA
BW z-score < −2 1.19 (0.14 - 10.2) 0.88 0.70 (0.08 - 6.33) 0.75
BW z-score2 to1 1.33 (0.68 - 2.62) 0.41 1.22 (0.56 - 2.67) 0.62
Male sex 1.60 (1.00 - 2.54) 0.049 1.35 (0.79 - 2.24) 0.27
Antenatal corticosteroids 1.17 (0.70 - 1.96) 0.55 0.86 (0.49 - 1.51) 0.61
Multiple pregnancy 0.96 (0.58 - 1.60) 0.88 1.34 (0.77 - 2.36) 0.3
PDA 1.52 (0.95 - 2.43) 0.083 1.29 (0.77 - 2.17) 0.33
NEC 5.45 (2.25 - 13.22) <0.001 1.94 (0.58 - 6.50) 0.28
Sepsis 1.47 (1.10 - 1.95) 0.008 1.20 (0.87 - 1.65) 0.27
Duration of ventilation (days) 1.04 (1.02 - 1.06) <0.001 NA
Mechanical ventilation 3.50 (1.55 - 7.93) 0.003 NA
BPD 3.09 (1.89 - 5.03) <0.001 2.81 (1.59 - 4.96) <0.001
IVH3 1.84 (0.86 - 3.93) 0.11 NA
Cystic PVL 2.07 (1.40 - 3.05) <0.001 NA
Major brain injury 2.72 (1.45 - 5.10) 0.002 2.64 (1.28 - 5.43) 0.008
ROP3 2.73 (1.21 - 6.14) 0.015 2.56 (1.05 - 6.26) 0.039
SES class 0.74 (0.53 - 1.03) 0.078 0.74 (0.51 - 1.06) 0.096
UNFAVOURABLE OUTCOME (moderate or severe ND or death after 360/7weeks PMA versus favourable outcome)
Univariate model† Multivariate model‡
OR (95%-CI) p-value OR (95%-CI) p-value
Gestational age (weeks) 0.76 (0.65 - 0.90) 0.001 0.90 (0.74 - 1.10) 0.31
BW z-score 0.85 (0.70 - 1.04) 0.11 NA
BW z-score < −2 6.52 (1.26 - 33.79) 0.025 5.29 (0.91 - 30.84) 0.064
BW z-score2 to1 1.04 (0.63 - 1.73) 0.88 0.95 (0.54 - 1.68) 0.86
Male sex 1.35 (0.98 - 1.86) 0.063 1.16 (0.81 - 1.65) 0.42
Antenatal corticosteroids 0.97 (0.68 - 1.38) 0.85 0.73 (0.49 - 1.09) 0.12
Multiple pregnancy 1.11 (0.78 - 1.58) 0.58 1.31 (0.88 - 1.96) 0.18
PDA 1.17 (0.84 - 1.63) 0.35 1.05 (0.73 - 1.53) 0.78
NEC 2.34 (0.99 - 5.52) 0.052 1.22 (0.43 - 3.49) 0.71
Sepsis 1.26 (1.03 - 1.54) 0.026 1.10 (0.87 - 1.38) 0.42
Duration of ventilation (days) 1.03 (1.02 - 1.05) <0.001 NA
Mechanical ventilation 1.23 (0.81 - 1.87) 0.32 NA
BPD 2.26 (1.53 - 3.33) <0.001 1.92 (1.24 - 2.99) 0.004
IVH3 1.35 (0.74 - 2.48) 0.33 NA
Cystic PVL 1.43 (1.04 - 1.98) 0.03 NA
Major brain injury 1.68 (0.99 - 2.86) 0.054 1.74 (0.95 - 3.18) 0.07
ROP3 5.03 (2.33 - 10.86) <0.001 4.88 (2.07 - 11.52) <0.001
SES class 0.76 (0.61 - 0.96) 0.022 0.74 (0.58 - 0.95) 0.018

The table gives all parameters that showed an unequal distribution among groups as shown in Table I or that are known from previous publications to act as confounders. † The univariate model is adjusted for study centre. ‡ The multivariate model contains all parameters that were associated with the outcome in the univariate model plus demographic factors such as gender and birth weight.

ND, neurodevelopmental disability; OR, Odd’s ratio; CI, confidence interval; PMA, postmenstrual age; BW, birth weight; PDA, persistent ductus arteriosus; NEC, necrotizing enterocolitis ≥ stage 2; BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; major brain injury, intraventricular haemorrhage ≥ grade 3 or cystic periventricular leukomalacia; PVL, periventricular leukomalacia; ROP, retinopathy of prematurity ≥ stage 3; SES, socioeconomic status.

Schlapbach et al.

Schlapbach et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:198   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-198

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