Table 4

Association of selected risk factors with delays of development (Multivariable logistic regression - adjusted Odds Ratios and 95%- confidence intervals, significant associations in bold)
Age Sex Nationality Having siblings
Delays of development Below 5.49 years Between 5.50 and 6.50 years p-value 6.51 years and older p-value Girl Boy p-value German Non- German p-value No Yes p-value
Gross motor skills 1 0.89 (0.72-1.10) 0.28 0.92 (0.65-1.30) 0.63 1 2.73 (2.32-3.22) <0.0001 1 1.34 (1.08-1.66) 0.01 1 1.13 (0.93-1.37) 0.21
Fine motor coordination 1 0.43 (0.37-0.49) <0.0001 0.28 (0.21-0.38) <0.0001 1 3.37 (2.98-3.81) <0.0001 1 1.41 (1.20-1.65) <0.0001 1 1.09 (0.95-1.26) 0.22
Grapho- motor coordination 1 0.42 (0.36-0.49) <0.0001 0.30 (0.22-0.40) <0.0001 1 3.27 (2.85-3.74) <0.0001 1 1.60 (1.35-1.89) <0.0001 1 1.07 (0.92-1.25) 0.40
Pronunciation 1 0.83 (0.72-0.97) 0.02 0.78 (0.61-1.00) 0.05 1 2.09 (1.88-2.32) <0.0001 1 0.66 (0.55-0.79) <0.0001 1 1.31 (1.14-1.50) <0.0001
Grammar 1 0.77 (0.60-0.98) 0.58 1.39 (0.89-2.15) 0.15 1 1.79 (1.45-2.21) <0.0001 1 2.52 (1.95-3.26) <0.0001 1 1.04 (0.81-1.34) 0.76
Rhythm of speech 1 0.90 (0.66-1.21) 0.47 1.16 (0.74-1.81) 0.52 1 2.09 (1.69-2.60) <0.0001 1 0.61 (0.41-0.90) 0.01 1 1.01 (0.78-1.30) 0.97
Memory and concentration 1 0.49 (0.43-0.57) <0.0001 0.42 (0.31-0.56) <0.0001 1 1.51 (1.33-1.71) <0.0001 1 2.01 (1.73-2.33) <0.0001 1 0.99 (0.85-1.16) 0.90
Perseverance 1 0.42 (0.36-0.50) <0.0001 0.44 (0.32-0.61) <0.0001 1 1.53 (1.32-1.76) <0.0001 1 1.82 (1.51-2.19) <0.0001 1 0.93 (0.79-1.11) 0.44
Abstraction 1 0.86 (0.65-1.14) 0.29 1.07 (0.67-1.66) 0.77 1 1.77 (1.44-2.17) <0.0001 1 2.76 (2.18-3.48) <0.0001 1 0.99 (0.78-1.27) 0.95
Visual perception 1 1.01 (0.78-1.31) 0.96 1.33 (0.90-1.96) 0.15 1 2.13 (1.77-2.56) <0.0001 1 2.65 (2.15-3.27) <0.0001 1 0.98 (0.79-1.22) 0.87
Arithmetic 1 0.79 (0.62-1.01) 0.06 0.73 (0.47-1.12) 0.15 1 1.40 (1.16-1.68) <0.0001 1 2.56 (2.06-3.18) <0.0001 1 1.07 (0.85-1.34) 0.57
Psychosocial development 1 0.48 (0.40-0.57) <0.0001 0.52 (0.38-0.71) 0.001 1 1.47 (1.28-1.70) <0.0001 1 1.66 (1.38-2.01) <0.0001 1 0.86 (0.73-1.02) 0.08

1=reference.

Stich et al.

Stich et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:188   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-188

Open Data