Table 2

Outcome measures

Parental measures

Abbreviation

Ref

Measurement

Time(s) administered


State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

STAI

[53]

Mother's anxiety level generally and at the current moment

E1, D, T and 4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale

CES-D

[54]

Mother's depressive symptomology during the past week

E1, D, T and 4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Approach System

BIS-BAS

[56]

Mother's aversive and appetitive motivation

E2, T and 4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Adult Temperament Questionnaire

ATQ

[61]

Mother's temperament

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Parenting Stress Index (short version)

PSI

[57]

Mother's parenting stress

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Maternal Self-Efficacy Scale

MSES

[60]

Mother's feelings of effectiveness in parenting

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Adult Attachment Interview

AAI

[55]

Mother's perception of her intimate relationships

E2


INFANT MEASURES


APGAR Score

APGAR

[70]

Health of newborn children immediately after birth

1 and 5 min after birth

NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale

NNNS

[62]

Neurobehavioral functioning of infant

36 & 40 wks PMA

Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire

EITQ

[64]

Infant's temperament

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Brief Infant-Toddler Social & Emotional Assessment

BITSEA

[66]

Screens for social-emotional problems in infant

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Infant Behavior Questionnaire

IBQ-R

[65]

Assesses infant's temperament

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Ages and Stages Questionnaire

ASQ

[68]

Screens for developmental delays in the infant

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

BAYLEY-III

[69]

Assesses infant motor, language, and cognitive development

18, 24 mo. CA

Child Behavior Checklist

CBCL

[67]

Screens for child emotional and behavioral problems

18, 24 mo. CA

Preschool Language Scale-5

PLS-5

[78]

Assesses toddler language development

24 mo. CA


NURTURE ASSESSMENT MEASURES


Mom's Support Circle (Additional File 1)

Mother's self-report of family's support system for infant care in the home.

E2, T and 4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Nurture Time Daily Log

Mother's self-report of time performing nurturing activities with the infant

Weekly in NICU

Maternal Nurture & Family Support Meeting

Nurse's assessment of mother's nurturing ability and family support system.

1x post discharge

Home Nurture Questionnaire

Mother's self-report of nurture interactions with her infant at home.

4 mo. CA

Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (revised)

NSSQ

[59]

Assesses father's social support

4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA


MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION MEASURES


Hane Behavioral Assessment Video

HANE

[76]

Coded for quality of maternal caregiving behavior and infant stress reactivity

36 wks PMA and 4 mo. CA

Beebe Assessment Video

BB

[52]

Coded and assessed for attachment and mother-infant attunement.

4 and 12 mo. CA


PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES


Electroencephalogram

EEG

[73]

Records brain activity of infant during an hour of sleep

34§, 36§, 40 wks PMA

Electrocardiogram

ECG

[92]

Records heart rhythm of infant during an hour of sleep

34§, 36§, 40 wks PMA and 4, 12, 24 mo. CA

Respiration

[93]

Respiratory rate of infant recorded during an hour of sleep

34§, 36§, 40 wks PMA

Body Temperature

[94]

Body temperature

34§, 36§, 40 wks PMA


BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES COLLECTED


Breastmilk

To analyse peptides present in mother's breastmilk

3x in NICU

Blood

To measure cytokines present in infant's blood

Once in unit.

Cortisol

[95]

From saliva. Assess mother and infant's stress levels

34§, 36§, 40§ wks PMA and 4, 12, 18, 24 mo. CA

Stool

[96]

1x/day for 3 wks, 1x/wk for 1 mo., 1x/mo. for 1 year


◆ Standardized Questionnaire

▲ Custom FNI-NICU Questionnaire


Assessments in mothers and infants will be performed from birth through 24 months to determine the primary and secondary outcomes of this study.

§ At these approximate ages the noted physiological variables will be obtained, simultaneously, from the mother and infant during a calming cycle. Abbreviations: CA, corrected age; D, Near Discharge; E1, Near Enrollment Before Assignment; E2, Near Enrollment After Assignment; PMA, postmenstrual age; T, At Term.

Welch et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:14   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-14

Open Data