Table 1

Characteristics of study cases and controls

Feature

Gastroschisis (n = 179) number (%)

Controls (n = 895) number (%)

p-valuea


Gestational age (weeks) (mean ± sd)

36 ± 2

36 ± 2

1.000

Maternal age (years) (mean ± sd)

22 ± 4

30 ± 3

<0.001

Age ≤ 20 years (%)

69 (38.6)

44 (5.0)

Age 20-24 years (%)

70 (39.1)

154 (17.2)

Age 25-29 years (%)

31 (17.3)

248 (27.7)

Age ≥ 30 years (%)

9 (5.0)

449 (50.2)

Maternal race

<0.001

Caucasian (%)

140 (78.2)

741 (82.8)

African American (%)

7 (3.9)

90 (10.1)

Asian (%)

19 (10.6)

38 (4.3)

Hispanic (%)

8 (4.5)

20 (2.2)

Native American (%)

5 (2.8)

6 (0.7)

Female

84 (47.0)

420 (47.0)

1.000

Inborn (%)

155 (86.6)

697 (77.9)

0.008

Birth weight <10th centileb (%)

44 (24.6)

69 (7.7)

<0.001

Gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsia (%)

0

148 (16.5)

N/Ae

Single (%)

113 (63.1)

224 (25.0)

<0.001

Minor anomalies (%)

24 (13.4)

39 (4.4)

<0.001

Multiple gestation

4 (2.2)

20 (2.2)

1.000

Primigravida

110 (61.5)

285 (31.8)

<0.001

Gestational diabetesf

1 (0.6)

63 (7.3)

0.010

Pre-existing (before pregnancy) diabetesf

0

27 (3.3)

N/Ae

Maternal smoking

52 (29.1)

138 (15.4)

<0.001

Maternal illicit drug use

7 (3.9)

32 (3.6)

0.829

Maternal alcohol use

7 (3.9)

16 (1.8)

0.082

Center (Minneapolis)

155 (86.6)

767 (85.7)

0.754

Era (1999-2007)

129 (72.1)

581 (64.9)

0.065

Birth weight (g)

2400 ± 502

2750 ± 532

<0.001

Birth weight z-score

-0.65 ± 0.86

0.11 ± 0.49

<0.001

Crown-heel length (cm)

45.7 ± 3.3

48.4 ± 2.7

<0.001

Crown-heel length z-scorec,d

-0.50 ± 1.19

0.68 ± 0.55

<0.001

Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC)

31.9 ± 1.9

32.9 ± 1.6

<0.001

OFC z-scored (cm)

-0.36 ± 0.87

0.24 ± 0.45

<0.001

Ponderal index

2.51 ± 0.37

2.40 ± 0.16

<0.001

Ponderal index z-score

-0.06 ± 0.85

-0.30 ± 0.34

<0.001


a Determined for continuous variables using paired t-test comparing the gastroschisis cases as individuals and the mean of the five matched controls' values as the paired control. Determined for the selected dichotomous and categorical variables using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for matching.

b Small for gestational age status determined as BW < 10th centile for gestational age using the standards of Fenton, et al.[21]

c Z-scores calculated by method of Cole, et al.[22]

d Length and OFC were missing in two gastroschisis cases, N = 177 for paired t-tests.

e Unable to estimate p-value with no cases in one or more cells.

f Presence or absence of pre-existing and gestational diabetes missing for 12 cases and 11 controls.

Payne et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:90   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-90

Open Data