Table 6

Sulfation, Methylation, Glutathione, and Oxidative Stress: The average levels measured in the Neurotypical group and the Autism Treatment and Autism Placebo groups (pre and post) who completed the study are reported below, along with their standard deviations.

Neuro-typicals

(n = 44)

Arizona Treatment Group

(n = 18)

Arizona Placebo Group

(n = 22)


Pre

Post

% change

p-value

Pre

Post

% change

p-value


Free Sulfate

(plasma)

umol/

g-protein

4.09

+/- 2.3

1.60

+/- 0.6

2.93

+/- 2.0

+83%

0.008

1.30

+/- 0.4

1.98

+/- 1.8

+52%

0.08


Total Sulfate

(plasma)

umol/

g-protein

1566

+/- 384

1150

+/- 254

1346

+/- 236

+17%

0.001

1093

+/- 184

1163

+/- 194

+6%

0.06


SAM

(RBC)

umol/dl

228.4

+/- 12

218

+/- 17

230

+/- 16

+6%

0.003

213

+/- 12

218

+/- 13

+3%

0.005


SAH

(RBC)

umol/dl

42.6

+/- 4.4

40.7

+/- 7.4

41.4

+/- 5.0

+2%

n.s.

48.5

+/- 6.9

45.4

+/- 7.1

-6%

0.03


Uridine

(plasma)

10-6 M

7.9

+/- 2.7

16.2

+/- 9.5

10.4

+/- 4.7

-36%

0.008

16.4

+/- 6.9

14.5

+/- 5.8

-11%

0.06


Adenosine

(plasma)

10-8 M

20.6

+/- 3.4

21.2

+/- 5.3

21.0

+/- 3.2

-1%

n.s.

24.5

+/- 6.2

22.8

+/- 4.2

-7%

0.05


Inosine

(plasma)

10-6 M

3.83

+/- 0.9

3.49

+/- 1.0

3.83

+/- 0.6

+10%

0.07

3.55

+/- 0.9

3.49

+/- 1.0

-2%

n.s.


Reduced plasma glutathione (GSH)

nmol/ml

4.09

+/- 0.79

3.27

+/- 0.59

3.84

+/- 0.61

+17%

0.0008

3.25

+/- 0.38

3.40

+/- 0.42

+5%

n.s.


Oxidized glutathione (GSSG)

nmol/ml

0.362

+/- 0.10

0.467

+/- 0.12

0.403

+/- 0.09

-14%

0.02

0.465

+/- 0.14

0.431

+/- 0.11

-7%

n.s.


Ratio of oxidized to reduced plasma glutathione

0.093

+/- 0.04

0.150

+/- 0.05

0.109

+/- 0.03

-27%

0.002

0.147

+/- 0.05

0.132

+/- 0.05

-10%

n.s.


Plasma nitro-tyrosine

ug/l

7.4

+/- 5.1

14.1

+/- 6.5

9.9

+/- 5.4

-29%

0.004

19.0

+/0 8.6

16.3

+/- 9.2

-14%

0.10


The p-value for a t-test comparison of the change in the level is reported. If the p-value is below 0.05, then the result is highlighted. Sulfation is assessed by free and total sulfate, methylation is assessed by SAM and uridine, glutathione is assessed by GSH, and oxidative stress is assessed by GSH:GSSG ratio and nitrotyrosine.

Adams et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:111   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-111

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