Table 1

Characteristics of Participants

Arizona

National Group


Placebo

Supplement

Placebo

Supplements


Total Participants

27

26

42

46


Male

22 (81%)

25 (96%)

39 (93%)

39 (85%)


Female

5 (19%)

1 (4%)

3 (7%)

7 (15%)


Age (years)

10.5 ± 3.1

9.3 ± 3.2

9.5 +/- 5.7

13.1 +/- 10.0


Diagnosis

74% Autism;

19% Aspergers; 7% PDD/NOS

96% Autism;

4% Aspergers

67% Autism

12% Asperger's

21% PDD/NOS

85% Autism

7% Asperger's

9% PDD/NOS


Medications

52% no medication;

8 (30%) psycho-pharmaceuticals - primarily risperdal and clonidine;

4 (15)% CNS stimulants (primarily Concerta);

1 (4%) anti-convulsants;

1 (4%) asthma/allergy medications;

1 (4%) GI medications;

1 (4%) Insulin medications;

2 (7%) blood pressure medications

42% no medication;

8 (32%) psycho-pharmaceuticals - primarily risperdal and clonidine;

1 (4%) CNS stimulants (Dextrostat);

1 (4%) anti-convulsants;

3 (12%) asthma/allergy medications;

2 (8%) GI meds

64% no medications;

10 (24%) atypical anti-psychotics (primarily Risperdal);

2 (5%) on CNS stimulants;

3 (7%) on anti-convulsants;

4 (10%) on allergy/asthma medications;

1 (2%) on GI medications

52% no medications;

14 (30%) atypical anti-psychotics (primarily risperdal);

3 (7%) on CNS stimulants;

7 (15%) on anti-convulsants (primarily Depakote);

6 (13%) on allergy/asthma medications;

1 (2%) on muscle relaxants;

1 (2%) on anti-coagulants


Special Diets

67% on regular diet;

3 gluten-free, casein-free diet;

2 reduced dairy;

2 low sugar

88% on regular diet;

1 gluten-free;

1 reduced gluten;

1 reduced dairy

76% on regular diet;

11% gluten-free, casein-free diet;

1 reduced gluten and casein diet;

2 milk-free;

1 soy-free

1 Feingold diet

67% on regular diet;

11% gluten-free, casein-free diet;

15% reduced dairy/gluten/casein;

1 dairy-free; 1 casein-free; 1 gluten-free; 1 low sugar; 1 no red/blue dyes; 1 lactose free; 1 low soy; 1 vegetarian; 1 no eggs


Nutritional Supplements

None

1 on fish oil; 3 on melatonin

5% on fish oil;

1 on melatonin;

1 digestive enzymes;

1 on glucosamine & chondroitin sulfate;

1 on constipation relief

4% on fish oil;

1 on glutamine;

1 on herbal sleep extract;

1 on multi-nutrient supplement


Adams et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:111   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-111

Open Data