Table 1

Background data and WHO z-score for weight-for length (WFL) of 929 children and their mother with available Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and anthropometry at 24 months.

n

%/mean(SD)

z-score weight-for length at 24 months

p-value


Total

929

100.0

0.26 (0.91)

Ever EPDS >= 13 at 2, 3 or 6 months

<13

827

89.0

0.25 (0.91)

0.6431

>=13

102

11.0

0.30 (0.91)

EPDS >= 13 at 2 months

<13

839

93.1

0.25 (0.90)

0.5053

>=13

62

6.9

0.33 (1.02)

EPDS >= 13 at 2 or 3 months and 6 months

<13

903

98.3

0.25 (0.91)

0.2963

>=13

16

1.7

0.01 (0.83)

Country

Germany

143

15.4

0.18 (0.89)

<0.001

Belgium

116

12.5

0.38 (0.86)

Italy

265

28.5

-0.04 (0.88)

Poland

159

17.1

0.36 (0.90)

Spain

246

26.5

0.21 (0.99)

Gender

male

449

48.3

0.29 (0.85)

0.2552

female

480

51.7

0.22 (0.97)

Birth order

1st child

537

57.9

0.28 (0.92)

0.5814

2nd child

301

32.5

0.23 (0.92)

>2nd child

89

9.6

0.18 (0.82)

Birth weight

<3130 g

313

33.7

0.29 (0.85)

0.0017

3130 - 3450 g

314

33.8

0.11 (0.88)

>3450 g

302

32.5

0.37 (0.98)

Study formula

lower protein

313

33.7

0.37 (0.93)

0.0197

higher protein

319

34.3

0.18 (0.86)

breastfed

297

32.0

0.21 (0.93)

Single mother

yes

38

4.1

0.26 (0.91)

0.3928

no

889

95.9

0.13 (0.90)

Pregnancy not wished

yes

73

7.9

0.24 (0.91)

0.2041

no

852

92.1

0.38 (0.92)

Mother frequently experienced stress during pregnancy

yes

139

15.0

0.25 (0.91)

0.8096

no

789

85.0

0.27 (0.94)

Caesarean section

yes

197

21.3

0.22 (0.92)

0.0487

no

728

78.7

0.37 (0.89)

Mother's education level (ISCED)

no/low

198

21.4

0.32 (0.94)

0.3906

middle

472

50.9

0.22 (0.91)

high

257

27.7

0.25 (0.87)

Smoking of mother 3 months prior to or during pregnancy

yes

324

35.0

0.21 (0.93)

0.0362

no

602

65.0

0.34 (0.87)

Smoking of mother beyond 12th week of pregnancy

yes

173

18.7

0.24 (0.91)

0.1780

no

754

81.3

0.34 (0.90)

BMI mother

<20

163

18.3

0.25 (0.86)

0.1585

20-<25

482

54.0

0.25 (1.00)

25-<30

183

20.5

0.19 (0.93)

>=30

64

7.2

0.49 (0.99)

Mother's age

<28

253

27.3

0.27 (0.90)

0.9231

28-<33

363

39.1

0.26 (0.89)

33-44

312

33.6

0.24 (0.96)


Grote et al. BMC Pediatrics 2010 10:14   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-10-14

Open Data