Table 3

Antisocial Behavior in 1990 by Spanking Frequency in 1988 and Six Other Covariates for Children from 6 to 9 Years Old in 1988

Main Effects and Interactions

Degrees of Freedom

Mean Sum of Squares

F Ratio

Predictors from 1988


Main Effects

Spanking frequency

3

798.4

2.87*

Gender

1

1576.2

5.66*

Cognitive Stimulation

2

383.3

1.38

Emotional Support

2

1271.3

4.56*

Ethnicity

1

0.8

.00

Socioeconomic status

2

1170.6

4.20*

Antisocial behavior (zero, low, high)

2

12460.2

44.72***

2-Way Interactions With Spanking

Gender

3

386.4

1.39

Cognitive Stimulation

6

183.4

0.66

Emotional Support

6

375.8

1.35

Ethnicity

3

371.8

1.33

Socioeconomic status

6

190.3

0.68

Antisocial behavior

6

115.5

0.42

Residual

741

278.6


Note. A natural log transformation of 1990 antisocial behavior was used to reduce skewness. The original 807 cases were reduced to N = 785 for this analysis due to missing values on grounding, privilege removal, or sending child to room.

*P < .05. ***P < .001.

Larzelere et al. BMC Pediatrics 2010 10:10   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-10-10

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