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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1: wider roles in cancer progression and prevention

Vasilis P Androutsopoulos12*, Aristidis M Tsatsakis1 and Demetrios A Spandidos2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Medicine, Division of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, University of Crete, Crete, Greece

2 Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Virology, University of Crete, Crete, Greece

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BMC Cancer 2009, 9:187  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-187

Published: 16 June 2009

Abstract

CYP1A1 is one of the main cytochrome P450 enzymes, examined extensively for its capacity to activate compounds with carcinogenic properties. Continuous exposure to inhalation chemicals and environmental carcinogens is thought to increase the level of CYP1A1 expression in extrahepatic tissues, through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Although the latter has long been recognized as a ligand-induced transcription factor, which is responsible for the xenobiotic activating pathway of several phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes, recent evidence suggests that the AhR is involved in various cell signaling pathways critical to cell cycle regulation and normal homeostasis. Disregulation of these pathways is implicated in tumor progression. In addition, it is becoming increasingly evident that CYP1A1 plays an important role in the detoxication of environmental carcinogens, as well as in the metabolic activation of dietary compounds with cancer preventative activity. Ultimately the contribution of CYP1A1 to cancer progression or prevention may depend on the balance of procarcinogen activation/detoxication and dietary natural product extrahepatic metabolism.