Table 1

Cohort studies of smokeless tobacco and pancreatic cancer

Study details

US Veterans Study

Lutheran Brotherhood Study

Norway Cohorts Study

Swedish Construction Workers Study



Sourcea

Winn et al [19]b

Zheng et al [9]c

Boffetta et al [10]d

Luo et al [11]


Country

USA

USA

Norway

Sweden


Population

US veterans insurance policyholders

Lutheran brotherhood insurance policyholderse

General population samples and relatives of Norwegian migrants to the USA

Construction workers


Baseline survey

1954

1966

1964, 1967

1978–1992


Sex

> 99.5% Male

Male

Male

Male


Follow-up

1954–1969

1966–1986

1966–2001

1978–2004


Sample sizef

Approx 300,000

17,633

10,136

279,897


Endpoint

Mortality

Mortality

Incidenceg

Incidence


Data on ST use

ST unspecified

ST unspecified

Snuff

Snuff


Adjustment factorsh

Age

Age, smoking, alcohol

Age, smoking

Age, smoking, body mass index


a The source given is for the latest follow-up

b The source is an abstract. Some of the study information about the US Veterans Study was obtained from other sources [33]

c Page 103 of IARC Monograph 37 [30] summarizes 15 year follow-up results from this study based on two abstracts [29,32]

d 11 year follow-up results from this study are reported on page 103 of IARC Monograph 37 [30] based on two abstracts [29,32], while 14 year follow-up results are given by Heuch et al [31]

e White

f Numbers used in specific analyses may be less than this

g Cases diagnosed on the basis of a clinical examination or death certificate only were excluded

h Adjustment factors used in analysis

Sponsiello-Wang et al. BMC Cancer 2008 8:356   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-356

Open Data