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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor signaling (SU9518) modifies radiation response in fibroblasts and endothelial cells

Minglun Li125*, Gong Ping12, Christian Plathow26, Thuy Trinh12, Kenneth E Lipson4, Kai Hauser1278, Robert Krempien3, Juergen Debus3, Amir Abdollahi12 and Peter E Huber12

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

2 University of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg, Germany

3 Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany

4 SUGEN, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080-4811, USA

5 Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Germany

6 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Germany

7 Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain

8 Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

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BMC Cancer 2006, 6:79  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-79

Published: 24 March 2006

Abstract

Background

Several small receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) have entered clinical cancer trials alone and in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The inhibitory spectrum of these compounds is often not restricted to a single target. For example Imatinib/Gleevec (primarily a bcr/abl kinase inhibitor) or SU11248 (mainly a VEGFR inhibitor) are also potent inhibitors of PDGFR and other kinases. We showed previously that PDGF signaling inhibition attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in a mouse model. Here we investigate effects of SU9518, a PDGFR inhibitor combined with ionizing radiation in human primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells in vitro, with a view on utilizing RTKI for antifibrotic therapy.

Methods

Protein levels of PDGFR-α/-β and phosphorylated PDGFR in fibroblasts were analyzed using western and immunocytochemistry assays. Functional proliferation and clonogenic assays were performed (i) to assess PDGFR-mediated survival and proliferation in fibroblasts and endothelial cells after SU9518 (small molecule inhibitor of PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase); (ii) to test the potency und selectivity of the PDGF RTK inhibitor after stimulation with PDGF isoforms (-AB, -AA, -BB) and VEGF+bFGF. In order to simulate in vivo conditions and to understand the role of radiation-induced paracrine PDGF secretion, co-culture models consisting of fibroblasts and endothelial cells were employed.

Results

In fibroblasts, radiation markedly activated PDGF signaling as detected by enhanced PDGFR phosphorylation which was potently inhibited by SU9518. In fibroblast clonogenic assay, SU9518 reduced PDGF stimulated fibroblast survival by 57%. Likewise, SU9518 potently inhibited fibroblast and endothelial cell proliferation. In the co-culture model, radiation of endothelial cells and fibroblast cells substantially stimulated proliferation of non irradiated fibroblasts and vice versa. Importantly, the RTK inhibitor significantly inhibited this paracrine radiation-induced fibroblast and endothelial cell activation.

Conclusion

Radiation-induced autocrine and paracrine PDGF signaling plays an important role in fibroblast and endothelial cell proliferation. SU9518, a PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, reduces radiation-induced fibroblast and endothelial cell activation. This may explain therapeutic anticancer effects of Imatinib/Gleevec, and at the same time it could open a way of attenuating radiation-induced fibrosis.