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Open Access Research article

Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003

Giedre Smailyte1*, Edita Miseikyte-Kaubriene2 and Juozas Kurtinaitis3

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, Division of Cancer Prevention, Polocko 2, Vilnius, Lithuania

2 Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, Department of Interventional Sonoscopy and Ultrasound Diagnostic, Santariskiu 1, Vilnius, Lithuania

3 Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, Cancer Registry, Polocko 2, Vilnius, Lithuania

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BMC Cancer 2006, 6:284  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-284

Published: 11 December 2006

Abstract

Background

The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003.

Methods

The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur.

Results

During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years.

Conclusion

A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice.