Table 1

Characteristics and univariate comparisons of urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) concentration in 199 healthy subjects from Rio Grande de Sul

Characteristic

Category N (%)

1-OHPG (pmol/ml) median (IQR)

P-value [1]


Age quartile 1

<= 35

52 (26%)

1.90 (0.23–3.55)

0.027

Age quartile 2

>35

49 (25%)

1.90 (0.76–5.58)

Age quartile 3

>45

52 (26%)

3.65 (1.36–7.58)

Age quartile 4

>58

46 (23%)

1.55 (0.22–5.01)

Sex, N (%)

Males

98 (49%)

2.19 (1.02–4.95)

0.52

Females

101 (51%)

2.03 (0.06–7.23)

Residence, N (%)

Rural

35 (18%)

1.97 (0.76–7.49)

0.91

Urban

160 (82%)

2.16 (0.48–5.30)

Ever drink maté, N (%)

No

45 (23%)

1.02 (0.05–2.03)

0.0004

Yes

154 (77%)

2.70 (0.89–6.92)

Maté quartile 1

<100 mls/day

53 (27%)

1.01 (0.05–2.16)

0.0001

Maté quartile 2

>100 mls/day

66 (33%)

1.97 (0.33–5.58)

Maté quartile 3

>500 mls/day

38 (19%)

3.24 (1.40–8.15)

Maté quartile 4

>1000 mls/day

42 (21%)

4.06 (1.21–8.50)

Current tobacco smoker, N (%)

No

103 (52%)

1.14 (0.05–3.17)

<0.0001

Yes

96 (48%)

3.76 (1.52–8.57)

Ever regular tobacco smoker, N (%)

No

71 (36%)

1.14 (0.05–2.35)

<0.0001

Yes

128 (64%)

3.41 (1.09–7.88)

Urine cotinine, N (%)

0 (<1–10 ng/mL)

49 (25%)

0.89 (0.05–2.35)

<0.0001

1 (10–30)

41 (21%)

1.52 (0.05–4.00)

2,3,4 (30–500)

39 (20%)

1.40 (0.29–3.68)

5 (500–2000)

36 (18%)

4.89 (1.74–8.69)

6 (>2000)

34 (17%)

7.36 (2.66–7.36)

Smoke Exposure2

No

85 (43%)

1.14 (0.051–3.17)

<0.0001

Yes

114 (57%)

3.30 (1.40–8.15)

Ever prepare BBQ, N (%)

No

107 (54%)

2.03 (0.08–5.58)

0.31

Yes

92 (46%)

2.136 (0.92–6.22)

Prepared BBQ in the last week, N (%)

No

148 (74%)

2.09 (0.31–5.60)

0.63

Yes

51 (26%)

2.09 (0.76–6.60)

Prepare BBQ at least once a week, N (%)

No

145 (73%)

2.22 (0.33–5.84)

0.88

Yes

54 (27%)

1.94 (0.95–5.90)

Ever eat BBQ well done, N (%)

No

56 (28%)

2.09 (0.24–7.52)

0.82

Yes

143 (72%)

2.09 (0.57–5.58)

Ever drink beer, N (%)

No

126 (63%)

2.44 (0.30–6.92)

0.92

Yes

73 (37%)

2.03 (1.02–4.63)

Ever drink wine, N (%)

No

168 (84%)

2.22 (0.05–6.66)

0.62

Yes

31 (16%)

1.97 (1.27–3.30)

Ever drink cachaca, N (%)

No

165 (83%)

1.97 (0.33–5.39)

0.03

Yes

34 (17%)

3.46 (1.52–8.19)


[1] All P-values come from the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the two-sided normal approximation P, except cotinine and mate quartile p-values which came from the Kruskal-Wallis test.

[2] We defined smoke exposed subjects as subjects who are current tobacco smokers or have a cotinine value greater than category 1 (> 30 ng/mL).

Fagundes et al. BMC Cancer 2006 6:139   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-139

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