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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Differential expression patterns and clinical significance of estrogen receptor-α and β in papillary thyroid carcinoma

Yanhong Huang1, Wenwu Dong12, Jing Li1*, Hao Zhang2, Zhongyan Shan1 and Weiping Teng1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, Shenyang 110001, P. R. China

2 Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, P.R. China

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BMC Cancer 2014, 14:383  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-383

Published: 29 May 2014

Abstract

Background

The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is markedly higher in women than men during the reproductive years. In vitro studies have suggested that estrogen may play an important role in the development and progression of PTC through estrogen receptors (ERs). This study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of the two main ER subtypes, α and β1 (wild-type ERβ), in PTC tissue and their clinical significance.

Methods

Immunohistochemical staining of thyroid tissue sections was performed to detect ER expression in female patients with PTC (n = 89) and nodular thyroid goiter (NTG; n = 30) using the Elivision™ plus two-step system. The relationships between ER subtype expression and clinicopathological/biological factors were further analyzed.

Results

The positive percentage and expression levels of ERα were significantly higher in female PTC patients of reproductive age (18–45 years old; n = 50) than age-matched female NTG patients (n = 30), while ERβ1 exhibited the opposite pattern. There was no difference in ERα or ERβ1 expression between female PTC patients of reproductive age and those of advanced reproductive age (>45 years old; n = 39). In the female PTC patients of reproductive age, ERα expression level was positively correlated with that of Ki-67, while ERβ1 was negatively correlated with mutant P53. Furthermore, more patients with exclusively nuclear ERα expression had extrathyroidal extension (ETE) as compared with those with extranuclear ERα localization. VEGF expression was significantly decreased in female PTC patients of reproductive age with only nuclear ERβ1 expression when compared with those with extranuclear ERβ1 localization. In PTC patients of advanced reproductive age, neither ERα nor ERβ1 expression showed any correlation with that of Ki-67, mutant P53, VEGF, tumor size, TNM stage, ETE, or lymph node metastases.

Conclusions

The differential expression patterns of the two ER subtypes between PTC and NTG indicate that ERα may be a useful immunohistochemical marker for differential diagnosis of PTC. The associations of ER subtype expression with Ki-67, mutant P53, VEGF expression and ETE in female PTC patients of reproductive age suggest that estrogen-activated ERα may mediate stimulatory effects on PTC growth and progression whereas ERβ1 has some inhibitory actions.

Keywords:
ERα; ERβ1; Papillary thyroid cancer; Ki-67; Mutant P53; VEGF