Open Access Research article

The potential prognostic value of connexin 26 and 46 expression in neoadjuvant-treated breast cancer

Ivett Teleki1, Tibor Krenacs12*, Marcell A Szasz3, Janina Kulka3, Barna Wichmann4, Cornelia Leo5, Barbel Papassotiropoulos6, Cosima Riemenschnitter7, Holger Moch7 and Zsuzsanna Varga7

Author Affiliations

1 1st Department of Pathology & Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

2 MTA-SE Tumour Progression Research Group, Budapest, Hungary

3 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

4 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

5 Division of Gynecology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

6 Breast Cancer Center Seefeld, Zurich, Switzerland

7 Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

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BMC Cancer 2013, 13:50  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-50

Published: 2 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Several classification systems are available to assess pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer, but reliable biomarkers to predict the efficiency of primary systemic therapy (PST) are still missing. Deregulation of gap junction channel forming connexins (Cx) has been implicated in carcinogenesis and tumour progression through loss of cell cycle control. In this study we correlated Cx expression and cell proliferation with disease survival and pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancers using existing classification systems.

Methods

The expression of Cx26, Cx32, Cx43, Cx46 and Ki67 was evaluated in 96 breast cancer patients prior to and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using duplicate cores in tissue microarrays (TMA). Cx plaques of <1μm were detected with multilayer, multichannel fluorescence digital microscopy. Current classifications to assess residual tumour burden after primary systemic therapy included the EWGBSP, CPS-EG, Miller-Payne, Sataloff and NSABP systems.

Results

In our cohort dominated by hormone receptor (ER/PR) positive and HER2 negative cases, only the CPS-EG classification showed prognostic relevance: cases with scores 1–2 had significantly better overall survival (p=0.015) than cases with scores 3–5. Pre-chemotherapy Cx43 expression correlated positively with hormone receptor status both before and after chemotherapy and had a negative correlation with HER2 expression pre-chemotherapy. There was a positive correlation between Cx32 and HER2 expression pre-chemotherapy and between Cx32 and Ki67 expression post-chemotherapy. A negative correlation was found between post-chemotherapy Cx46 and Ki67 expression. Decreased post-chemotherapy Cx26 expression (<5%) statistically correlated with better overall survival (p=0.011). Moderate or higher Cx46 expression (>20%) pre- and post-chemotherapy correlated with significantly better survival in the intermediate prognostic subgroups of EWGBSP TR2b (ppre-chemo=0.006; Sataloff TB (ppre-chemo=0.005; ppost-chemo=0.029) and in Miller-Payne G3 (ppre-chemo=0.002; ppost-chemo=0.012) classifications. Pre-chemotherapy, Cx46 expression was the only marker that correlated with overall survival within these subgroups.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that Cx46 and Cx26 expression in breast cancer may improve the assessment of pathological response and refine intermediate prognostic subgroups of residual tumour classifications used after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Keywords:
Breast cancer; Connexin; Gap junction; Preoperative chemotherapy; Prognosis