Figure 2.

Fe-Lf augments tamoxifen therapy to suppress the formation and growth of 4T1 tumors and their metastasis to livers and lungs. A,B: Fe-Lf augments tamoxifen therapy to suppress the formation and growth of 4T1 tumors. A: In the prevention experiment, 6 mice from each group were randomly killed for sampling on days 29, 36, and 43 following placement on diets and the start of administration of tamoxifen (TAM). Tumor size was measured every two days. B: In the treatment experiment, tamoxifen (TAM) was administered to the mice 14 days after injection of tumor cells. Each group had 6 mice, and tumor size was measured every two days. C,D: Fe-Lf augments tamoxifen therapy to suppress metastasis to livers and lungs. Mice in the prevention experiment were euthanized on day 43, and their livers and lungs removed. The livers were sectioned and stained with HE. The numbers of metastatic tumor nodules in liver sections (C) and the number of metastatic tumors on the surface of lungs (D) were counted, respectively. Results are expressed as the mean value ± SD. “*” P < 0.05 or “**” P <0.001 versus the group fed the control diet, “†” P < 0.05 versus the group fed the control diet and treated with tamoxifen, and “‡” P < 0.05 versus the group fed the Fe-Lf diet. E: Fe-Lf attenuates loss of body weight caused by cancer cachexia and tamoxifen therapy, and inhibits tamoxifen-induced reductions of IL-18 and IFN-γ in sera and intestinal cells. The mice in the prevention experiment were weighed every two days. “*” P < 0.05 versus the group fed the control diet, “†” P < 0.05 versus the group fed the control diet and treated with tamoxifen (TAM).

Sun et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:591   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-591
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