Figure 3.

Ductal Lavage. a | saline is injected through the catheter into the duct and the breast is massaged to bring ductal cells into the chamber of the catheter. An empty syringe attached to the catheter is used to collect the cells from the catheter chamber. Saline injection and massage are repeated until a sufficient sample has been collected. b | microcatheter. c | nipple grid. d | Examples of ductal epithelial cells collected by ductal lavage: i) ductal hyperplasia; ii) atypical ductal hyperplasia; iii) ki-67 expression.

Lazzeroni et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:575   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-575
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