Table 4

Association of exposure to hardwood dust with nasal malignancies
Controls (%) Cases (%) OR (95%CI)
All study participants
Reference* 2331 (97.1) 393 (92.0) 1.00
Exposed for at least 1 year§ 70 (2.9) 34 (8.0) 2.33 (1.40–3.91)
Per year of exposure§ 70 (2.9) 34 (8.0) 1.06 (1.03–1.10)
Exposure (tertile) < 8 years 23 (1.0) 6 (1.4) 2.08 (0.56–7.74)
8 < 24 years 23 (1.0) 9 (2.1) 1.26 (0.51–3.18)
24+ years 24 (1.0) 19 (4.5) 13.07 (3.44–49.70)
Smokers
Reference* 1370 (96.8) 273 (93.5) 1.0
Exposed for at least 1 year§ 45 (3.2) 19 (6.5) 2.42 (1.03–5.68)
Per year of exposure§ 45 (3.2) 19 (6.5) 1.07 (1.02–1.12)
Exposure (tertile) < 8 years 16 (1.1) 4 (1.4) 2.72 (0.56–13.14)
8 < 24 years 16 (1.1) 5 (1.7) 1.65 (0.53–5.18)
24+ years 13 (0.9) 10 (3.4) 8.69 (1.36–55.42)
Never-smokers
Reference* 961 (97.5) 120 (88.9) 1.00
Exposed for at least 1 year§ 25 (2.5) 15 (11.1) 6.09 (1.56–23.75)
Per year of exposure§ 25 (2.5) 15 (11.1) 1.09 (1.02–1.16)
Exposure (tertile) < 8 years 7 (0.7) 2 (1.5) 2.84 (0.24–34.27)
8 < 24 years 7 (0.7) 4 (3.0) 3.20 (0.34–30.07)
24+ years 11 (1.1) 9 (6.7) 22.25 (2.05–241.02)

*never exposed to hardwood dust.

§daily/several days per week.

Adjustments: Year of birth, community size, educational attainment, cigarette pack-years (all study participants), snuff package-years, years of exposure to asbestos, organic solvents, use of nasal spray/nasal lavage and ever-use of insecticides in homes, duration of exposure to softwood dust and to chipboard dust.

Greiser et al.

Greiser et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:506   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-506

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