Table 4

Effect sizes of yoga versus no treatment and active control interventions
Outcomea No. of studies No. of patients (yoga) No. of patients (control) Standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] P (overall effect) Heterogeneity
I2; Chi2; P
Yoga versus no treatment
Short-term
 Global quality of life 3 127 85 0.29 [0.01, 0.57] 0.04 0%; 0.75; 0.69
 Mental well-being 5 161 123 0.09 [−0.15, 0.33] 0.46 0%; 3.40; 0.49
 Physical well-being 5 161 123 0.51 [−0.33, 1.34] 0.23 89%; 37.26; <0.01
 Functional well-being 4 134 92 0.30 [0.03, 0.57] 0.03 0%; 1.14; 0.77
 Social well-being 3 161 123 0.32 [0.08, 0.56] <0.01 0%; 3.49; 0.48
 Spiritual well-being 2 97 58 0.41 [0.08, 0.74] 0.01 0%; 0.11; 0.74
 Anxiety 2 111 75 −0.58 [−1.22, 0.07] 0.08 75%; 3.93; 0.05
 Depression 2 40 45 −0.35 [−0.81, 0.12] 0.14 11%; 1.12; 0.29
 Psychological distress 3 124 89 −0.19 [−0.70, 0.32] 0.47 64%; 5.55; 0.06
Yoga versus active control interventions
Short-term
 Mental well-being 2 63 60 1.19 [0.13, 2.26] 0.03 81%; 5.9; 0.02
 Anxiety 3 105 90 −2.21 [−3.90, -0.52] 0.01 95%; 42.26; <0.01
 Depression 4 121 105 −2.29 [−3.97, -0.61] <0.01 96%; 74.01; <0.01
 Perceived stress 3 93 71 −1.14 [−2.16, -0.12] 0.03 88%; 16.42; <0.01
 Psychological distress 3 91 94 −1.55 [−2.48, -0.61] <0.01 85%; 13.68; <0.01

aOutcomes are only shown when sufficient data for meta-analysis were available.

Cramer et al.

Cramer et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:412   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-412

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