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Open Access Research article

Promoter hypermethylation-induced transcriptional down-regulation of the gene MYCT1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Min Yang12, Wei Li13, Yi-Ying Liu1, Shuang Fu1, Guang-Bin Qiu4, Kai-Lai Sun1 and Wei-Neng Fu1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Medical Genetics, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, P.R. China

2 Shenyang Police-dog Technology School of Ministry of Public Security, Shenyang, 110034, P.R. China

3 ENT Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, P.R. China

4 Department of Laboratory Medicine, No. 202 Hospital of PLA, Shenyang, 110003, P.R. China

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BMC Cancer 2012, 12:219  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-219

Published: 6 June 2012

Abstract

Background

MYCT1, previously named MTLC, is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene. MYCT1 was cloned from laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC) and has been found to be down-regulated in LSCC; however, the regulatory details have not been fully elucidated.

Methods

Here, we sought to investigate the methylation status of the CpG islands of MYCT1 and mRNA levels by bisulfite-specific PCR (BSP) based on sequencing restriction enzyme digestion, reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). The function of specific sites in the proximal promoter of MYCT1 in LSCC was measured by transient transfection, luciferase assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP).

Results

The results suggested hypermethylation of 12 CpG sites of the promoter in both laryngeal cancer tissues and the laryngeal cancer line Hep-2 cell. The hypermethylation of the site CGCG (−695 to −692), which has been identified as the c-Myc binding site, was identified in laryngeal cancer tissues (59/73) compared to paired mucosa (13/73); in addition, statistical analysis revealed that the methylation status of this site significantly correlated with cancer cell differentiation(p < 0.01). The mRNA level of MYCT1 increased in Hep-2 cells treated with 5-aza-C (p < 0.01). The luciferase activity from mutant transfectants pGL3-MYCT1m (−852/+12, mut-695-C > A, mut-693-C > G) was significantly reduced compared with the wild type pGL3-MYCT1 (−852/+12), while the luciferase activity from wild transfectants pGL3-MYCT1 (−852/+12) rose after 5-aza treatment in Hep-2 cells. Finally, EMSA and ChIP confirmed that the methylation of the CGCG (−695 to −692) site prevented c-Myc from binding of the site and demethylation treatment of the 5′ flanking region of MYCT1 by 5-aza induced the increased occupation of the core promoter by c-Myc (p < 0.01).

Conclusion

In summary, this study concluded that hypermethylation contributed to the transcriptional down-regulation of MYCT1 and could inhibit cancer cell differentiation in LSCC. DNA methylation of the CGCG site (−695 to −692) of MYCT1 altered the promoter activity by interfering with its binding to c-Myc in LSCC. Epigenetic therapy of reactivating MYCT1 by 5-aza should be further evaluated in clinical trails of LSCC.

Keywords:
Hypermethylation; MYCT1; Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma