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Open Access Research article

Retrospective comparison between a regular and a split-dose protocol of 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and mitoxantrone for the treatment of far advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

Chau-Ting Yeh2*, Hui-Chin Chen3, Chang-Mu Sung1, Cheng-Lung Hsu4, Chen-Chun Lin1, Kuang-Tse Pan5, Jeng-Hwei Tseng5 and Chien-Fu Hung5

Author Affiliations

1 Liver Research Unit, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

2 Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

3 Graduate Institute of Nursing, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

4 Department of Hematology-Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

5 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

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BMC Cancer 2011, 11:117  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-117

Published: 31 March 2011

Abstract

Background

In patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), combination chemotherapy using 5- fluorouracil, cisplatin, and mitoxantrone (FMP) could achieve a response rate > 20%, but the beneficial effect was compromised by formidable adverse events. Chemotherapy given in a split-dose manner was associated with reduced toxicities. In this retrospective study, we compared the efficacies and side effects between a regular and a split-dose FMP protocol approved in our medical center.

Methods

From 2005 to 2008, the clinical data of 84 patients with far advanced HCC, who had either main portal vein thrombosis and/or extrahepatic metastasis, were reviewed. Of them, 65 were treated by either regular (n = 27) or split-dose (n = 38) FMP and had completed at least one therapeutic course. The remaining 19 patients were untreated. Clinical parameters, therapeutic responses, survivals and adverse events were compared.

Results

The median overall survival was 6.0, 5.2, and 1.5 months, respectively, in patients receiving regular FMP, split-dose FMP, and no treatment (regular versus split-dose group, P = 0.447; regular or split-dose versus untreated group; P < 0.0001). Patients receiving split-dose treatment had a significantly lower risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia (51.9 versus 10.5%, P = 0.0005). When the two treated groups were combined, the median overall survival was 10.6 and 3.8 months respectively for patients achieving disease control and progressive disease (P < 0.001). Cox proportion hazard model identified Child-Pugh stage B (hazard ratio [HR], 2.216; P = 0.006), presence of extrahepatic metastasis (HR, 0.574; P = 0.048), and achievement of disease control (HR, 0.228; P < 0.001) as independent factors associated with overall survival. Logistic regression analysis revealed that anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (odds ratio [OR], 9.219; P = 0.002) tumor size (OR, 0.816; P = 0.036), and previous anti-cancer therapy (OR, 0.195; P = 0.017) were significantly associated with successful disease control.

Conclusions

Comparable overall survival was observed between patients receiving regular and split-dose FMP therapies. Patients receiving split-dose therapy had a significantly lower risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Positive anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, smaller tumor size, and absence of previous anti-cancer therapy were independent predictors for successful disease control.