Table 18

Summary of evidence grading for all interventions prior to and during pregnancy to prevent stillbirth and perinatal mortality reviewed in this paper

Evidence of no or negative impact

(leave out of programs)

Uncertain evidence

(need for additional research before including in programs)

Some evidence

(may include in programs, but further evaluation is warranted)

Clear evidence

(merits inclusion in programs)


Calcium supplementation for pregnancy-induced hypertension

X1


Anti-hypertensives

X


Anti-platelet agents

X


Anti-oxidants

X


Heparin

X

(for certain conditions)


Management of intrahepatic cholestasis

X


Plasma exchange

X


Cervical cerclage

X


Anti-helminthics

X


Syphilis screening and treatment

X


Antibiotics for BV, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and GBS

X


Antibiotics for PROM/PPROM

X


Anti-malarials

X2


ITNs

X


PMTCT for HIV

X2


Periodontal care

X


1Possibly effective in some low-resource settings

2Maternal and infant benefit

Menezes et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S4   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-S1-S4

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