Table 2

Modes of DSF
Mechanism for promoting maternal health Administrative structure used Distribution Programmes and studies included in the systematic review Monetary benefit or equivalent to recipient (maternal health component only) - expressed in US dollars and as a proportion of gross domestic product per capita per month. Illustration sourced from the most recently published study.
Unconditional cash transfers Alleviates deleterious effects of poverty on health during period of pregnancy Government health system Directly into a bank account Dr Muthulakshmi Reddy Memorial Assistance Scheme (India) [14] USD 68 (58% of GDP per capita per month) paid twice during pregnancy [14]
Conditional cash transfers Conditionalities improve utilisation of specified maternity services Social welfare system Directly into a bank account, community distribution or sent to beneficiaries Oportunidades (Mexico – previously PROGRESA) [11,25-32] Not stated
Comunidades Solidarias Rurales (El Salvador – previously Red Solidaria) [28,33] USD 15 (5%) every month [33]
Juntos (Peru) [12] USD 75 (15%) every two months [12]
Bono Juana Azurduy (Bolivia) [12] USD 250 (129%) over 33 months [12]
Programa de Asignacion Familiar (Honduras) [13] USD 3 (3%) every month [13]
Social Risk Mitigation Project (Turkey) [28] Not stated
Program Keluarga Harapan (Indonesia) [34] USD 30 (10%) every four months [34]
Short-term payments to offset costs of access Alleviates deleterious effects of poverty on access to maternity services Government health system Retrospective payments at health facilities Janani Suraksha Yojana (India) [9,35-60] USD 13 – 31 (11-26%), depending on location [40]
Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (Nepal) [10,61,62] USD 7 – 24 (12-41%), depending on location [10]
Vouchers for maternity services Removes/reduces cost of specified maternity services at point of use Parallel voucher management agency Community-based distribution (if vouchers are used) Vouchers for Health (Kenya) [6,63-65] Four ANC, delivery and two PNC (voucher cost USD 2.50 - 3%) [64]
HealthyBaby vouchers (Uganda) [6,66] Four ANC, delivery and two PNC (voucher cost USD 1.20 - 3%) [66]
Makerere University Voucher Scheme (Uganda) [67] Three ANC, delivery, two PNC and transport costs (voucher provided free) [67]
Obstetric Care State Certificate Program (Armenia) [68] Aimed to eliminate informal payments [68]
Pilot voucher scheme (Pakistan) [69,70] Three ANC, delivery and one PNC (voucher cost USD 1.20 - 1%) [69]
Sambhav vouchers (India) [71] Three ANC, delivery and two PNC (voucher provided free) [71]
Chiranjeevi scheme (India) [72,73] One ANC, delivery, transport and food (no voucher)
MAMTA scheme (India) [74] Three ANC, delivery and one PNC (voucher provided free) [73]
Pilot voucher scheme (Bangladesh) [75] Three ANC, delivery, one PNC and transport costs (voucher provided free) [75]
Maternal Health Voucher Scheme (Bangladesh) [8,76-80] Three ANC, delivery, one PNC and transport costs (voucher provided free) [80]
Pilot voucher scheme (Cambodia) [81] Three ANC, delivery, one PNC and transport costs (voucher provided free) [81]
Vouchers for merit goods Removes/reduces cost of merit good at point of use Government health facilities Distribution at health facilities Discount voucher scheme (Tanzania) [82,83] USD 0.50 (2%) discount on an insecticide-treated net costing USD 3.50 [83]
Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (Tanzania) [7,84,85] USD 2.70 (6%) discount on an insecticide-treated net costing USD 3.65 [7]
Volta voucher scheme (Ghana) [86] USD 4.20 (5%) discount on an insecticide-treated net [86]

Notes. USD refers to US dollars, ANC to antenatal care, PNC to postnatal care. Some DSF programmes fit into more than one mode, such as the Social Risk Mitigation Programme in Turkey and the Maternal Health Voucher Scheme in Bangladesh which both include short-term payments to offset costs of access for maternity services. Other programmes included supply-side components that were not reviewed here, for example removal of user fees in Nepal. Conditions were added to the Dr Muthulakshmi Reddy Memorial Assistance Scheme in 2012. Where studies did not provide a currency conversion into US Dollars, the conversion was made using historical rate tables produced by XE based on the month and year in which the article was published [87]. Value as a proportion of gross domestic product per capita per month was calculated using World Bank data from the year in which the article was published [22].

Murray et al.

Murray et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:30   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-30

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