|Primary reason for transfer, timing and urgency by planned place of birth and parity1|
|Home||Freestanding midwifery unit|
|N = 16,619||N = 11,197|
|Women not transferred||2481||55.9||10682||88.4||3284||65.5||5478||90.8|
|Primary reason for transfer2|
|Failure to progress 1st stage||521||11.2||206||1.7||457||8.0||76||1.2|
|Fetal distress 1st stage||95||2.2||85||0.7||165||3.2||36||0.6|
|Failure to progress 2nd stage||300||6.7||78||0.6||316||5.3||48||0.7|
|Fetal distress 2nd stage||30||0.6||11||0.1||29||0.5||6||0.1|
|Repair of perineal trauma||203||4.4||180||1.4||144||2.9||37||0.6|
|Other before birth3||149||3.4||110||0.9||58||1.3||33||0.5|
|Other after birth, maternal reasons||9||0.2||18||0.1||9||0.1||11||0.2|
|Other after birth, neonatal reasons||42||0.9||141||1.1||33||0.6||32||0.6|
|Timing of transfer2|
|During labour (before birth)||1563||34.2||764||6.0||1521||26.9||316||4.9|
|Immediately after birth||401||8.6||633||5.0||304||6.0||237||3.9|
|Urgency of reason for transfer2|
|Potentially urgent (before birth)4||462||10.3||206||1.6||540||9.5||102||1.5|
|Non-urgent (before birth)5||640||13.6||244||2.0||589||10.3||98||1.5|
|Potentially urgent (after birth)6||53||1.2||88||0.7||37||0.7||53||0.9|
1Including only women with known parity. Proportions are weighted to allow for different durations of data collection.
2As a proportion of all nulliparous/multiparous women planning birth in each setting.
3Including: prolonged rupture of membranes; failure to progress with no stage of labour specified; fetal distress with no stage specified or other concerns about the baby during labour; concerns about the mother during labour; pain relief other than epidural; maternal request, other than for epidural; non-medical reasons, including NHS resource issues such as staffing; clear breach of MU criteria or other factors that might indicate unsuitability for out of hospital birth.
4Transfers before birth for fetal distress (1st or 2nd stage or stage not specified), failure to progress in the 2nd stage or antepartum haemorrhage (excluding those where timing was not known or inconsistent).
5Transfers before birth for failure to progress in the 1st stage or epidural request (excluding those where timing was not known or inconsistent).
6Transfers after birth for postpartum haemorrhage.
7All other reasons for transfer (including not known) not classified as potentially urgent or non-urgent above.
Rowe et al.
Rowe et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013 13:224 doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-224