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Open Access Research article

Involvement of males in antenatal care, birth preparedness, exclusive breast feeding and immunizations for children in Kathmandu, Nepal

Dharma Nand Bhatta

Author Affiliations

Department of Public Health, Pokhara University, Nobel College, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013, 13:14  doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-14

Published: 16 January 2013



Men in patriarchal societies of developing countries are often identified as decision makers in all aspects of day-to-day life. The study explores the factors associated with male involvement in ANC, birth plans, exclusive breastfeeding and immunization of children.


A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2178 married males between May and December 2010 in Kathmandu, Nepal. Twenty one clusters were selected for data collection using structured questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method.


This study determined the percentage of males who accompanied their partners for ANC (39.3%), arranged SBA (47.9%) and accompanied them for child immunization (10.9%). Factors found associated with respect to different activities were as follows: accompanied their partners on antenatal visits – uneducated or primary level education (AOR, 5.68, 95% CI, 4.44-7.27), income NPR 5001 (1USD = 85 NPR) or above (1.47, 1.20-1.80) and aged above 25 years (2.51, 1.89-3.33); arranged money for delivery – uneducated or primary level education (7.34, 5.84-9.23), income NPR 5001 or above (1.80, 1.48-2.20) and aged above 25 years (1.55, 1.18-2.03); arranged SBA – uneducated or primary level education (17.14, 12.65-23.22) and income NPR 5001 or above (2.89, 2.36-3.54); arranged transportation – uneducated or primary level education (17.65, 11.84-26.32), income NPR 5001 or above (1.69, 1.40-2.04) and aged above 25 years (1.69, 1.27-2.24); encouraged exclusive breast feeding – uneducated or primary level education (5.48, 4.39-6.83) and aged above 25 years (1.35, 1.03-1.77); accompanied their partners for immunization their children – uneducated or primary level education (3.88, 2.53-5.96) and aged above 25 years (1.72, 1.11-2.64).


Men who were uneducated or had primary level education, aged above 25 years, had higher income, formal employment, came from Hindu religion and non-indigenous ethnicities demonstrated greater involvement and these factors should be emphatically considered during maternal health program development.

Male involvement; Nepal; ANC; Birth preparedness; Exclusive breast feeding; Immunization