Table 1

Risk and protective factors for major postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000mls) for term nulliparous women – all deliveries
No PPH PPH
n= 10351 (91.1%) n= 1012 (8.9%) Unadjusted OR’s Adjusted OR’s*
Maternal characteristic
 BMI
   18.5-24.9 6714 (64.9) 524 (51.8) 1.00 1.00
   25.0-29.9 2376 (22.9) 255 (25.2) 1.38 (1.18-1.61) 1.20 (1.01-1.42)
   ≥ 30.0 1261 (12.2) 233 (23.0) 2.37 (2.01-2.79) 1.86 (1.51-2.28)
 Age (y)
   Less than 20 551 (5.3) 38 (3.8) 0.70 (0.49-0.98) 0.77 (0.53-1.12)
   20-29 4078 (39.4) 405 (40.0) 1.00 1.00
   30-34 3553 (34.3) 336 (33.2) 0.95 (0.82-1.11) 0.94 (0.79-1.11)
   ≥ 35 2169 (21.0) 233 (23.0) 1.08 (0.91-1.28) 0.93 (0.77-1.14)
 Ethnicity
   European 5573 (53.9) 491 (48.5) 1.00 1.00
   Maori 765 (7.4) 78 (7.7) 1.16 (0.90-1.49) 1.27 (0.95-1.69)
   Pacific island 881 (8.5) 136 (13.5) 1.75 (1.43-2.15) 1.60 (1.25-2.06)
   Asian 2052 (19.8) 227 (22.4) 1.26 (1.06-1.48) 1.61 (1.34-1.94)
   Indian 766 (7.4) 64 (6.3) 0.95 (0.72-1.24) 1.20 (0.89-1.61)
   Other 314 (3.0) 16 (1.6) 0.58 (0.35-0.96) 0.68 (0.40-1.15)
 Smoking (at booking)
   No 9086 (87.8) 908 (89.7) 1.00 1.00
   Yes 778 (7.5) 69 (6.8) 0.89 (0.69-1.15) 0.86 (0.65-1.14)
   Unknown 487 (4.7) 35 (3.5) 0.72 (0.51-1.02) 0.67 (0.47-0.97)
 Maternity care
   Private 2556 (24.7) 231 (22.8) 1.00 1.00
   Public 7795 (75.3) 781 (77.2) 1.11 (0.95-1.29) 0.83 (0.69-0.99)
Pregnancy complications
 Antepartum haemorrhage
   No 9899 (95.6) 924 (91.3) 1.00 1.00
   Yes‡ 378 (3.7) 60 (5.9) 1.70 (1.28-2.25) 1.76 (1.31-2.36)
   Placenta praevia 74 (0.7) 28 (2.8) 4.06 (2.61-6.30) 4.00 (2.48-6.47)
 Diabetes
   Nil 7651 (73.9) 733 (72.4) 1.00 1.00
   Type 1 or Type 2 64 (0.6) 8 (0.8) 1.31 (0.62-2.73) 0.82 (0.38-1.80)
   Gestational 463 (4.5) 52 (5.2) 1.17 (0.87-1.58) 0.92 (0.66-1.29)
   Unknown 2173 (21.0) 219 (21.6) 1.05 (0.90-1.23) 1.06 (0.90-1.26)
 Hypertension
   Nil 9332 (90.2) 878 (86.8) 1.00 1.00
   Chronic 143 (1.4) 26 (2.6) 1.93 (1.27-2.95) 1.78 (1.13-2.80)
   Gestational 523 (5.0) 56 (5.5) 1.14 (0.86-1.51) 0.98 (0.72-1.33)
   Preeclampsia 353 (3.4) 52 (5.1) 1.57 (1.16-2.11) 1.33 (0.95-1.85)
 Induction of labour 3187 (30.8) 397 (39.2) 1.45 (1.27-1.66) 1.20 (1.03-1.40)
Delivery outcomes
 Mode of delivery
   Vaginal
   Spontaneous 5010 (48.4) 245 (24.2) 1.00 1.00
   Ventouse 1561 (15.1) 102 (10.1) 1.34 (1.05-1.70) 1.40 (1.09-1.79)
   Forceps 711 (6.9) 70 (6.9) 2.01 (1.53-2.66) 1.98 (1.49-2.65)
   Caesarean
   Prelabour 1165 (11.2) 153 (15.1) 2.69 (2.17-3.32) 2.99 (2.33-3.83)
   Emergency in labour 1904 (18.4) 442 (43.7) 4.75 (4.03-5.60) 4.47 (3.74-5.35)
 Retained placenta 109 (1.1) 38 (3.8) 3.67 (2.52-5.33) 6.60 (4.42-9.85)
Neonatal outcomes
 Gestation at delivery (days) 278.7 ± 8.6 279.8 ± 8.6 1.11 (1.05-1.17) per ↑1wk 0.96 (0.90-1.03) per ↑1wk
 Birthweight (g) 3416 ± 462 3621 ± 511 1.58 (1.47-1.69) per ↑500g 1.49 (1.38-1.62) per ↑500g
 Small for gestational age 1205 (11.6) 84 (8.3) 0.69 (0.55-0.87) §
 Large for gestational age 848 (8.2) 178 (17.6) 2.39 (2.01-2.85) §

Data are n (%) or mean ± standard deviation.

Significant adjusted OR’s are bolded.

* Adjusted for all variables in table.

Body Mass Index.

from any cause excluding placenta praevia >20wk gestation.

§ SGA/LGA not included in multivariable model.

Fyfe et al.

Fyfe et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:112   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-112

Open Data