Table 2

Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis

Study ID

Country

Study period

Study design

Population

Size

First two births

Risk adjustment*


Singh_1981

India

1973-1978

Cohort

Hospital

12040

0

-


Gorodeski_1985

Israel

1972-1983

Case-control

Hospital

455

0

-


Sauer_1985

USA

1981-1984

Case-control

Hospital

135

0

-


Clark_1985

USA

1977-1983

Cohort

Hospital

97799

0

-


Rose_1986

England

1978-1982

Case-control

Hospital

160

0

AP;


Hemminki_1987

Sweden

Cohort

Population

7337

1

AP;


Nielsen_1989

Sweden

1978-1987

Cohort

Hospital

24644

0

-


Williams_1991

USA

1977-1980

Case-control

Hospital

12420

0

AP; abortion; alcohol and tobacco use; SE


Chattopadhyay_1993

Saudi Arabia

1988-1992

Cohort

Hospital

41206

0

-


Zhang_1993

USA

1988-1990

Case-control

Population

6478

0

-


Parazzini_1994

Italy

1979-1991

Case-control

Hospital

203

0

-


Makhseed_1994

Kuwait

1992-1992

Cohort

Hospital

8721

0

-


Khouri_1994

Saudi Arabia

1985-1989

Cohort

Hospital

25551

0

-


Taylor_1994

USA

1984-1987

Case-control

Population

1967

0

AP; abortion; tobacco use


To_1995

Hong Kong

1984-1993

Cohort

Hospital

50485

0

-


Monica_1995

Sweden

1983-1990

Case-control

Population

4676

0

AP; previous previa


Hemminki_1996

Finland

1987-1993

Cohort

Population

10889

1

AP; provider


Chelmow_1996

USA

1992-1994

Case-control

Hospital

128

0

-


Takayama_1997

Japan

1974-1994

Case-control

Hospital

264

0

-


Macones_1997

USA

1992-1996

Case-control

Hospital

120

0

age; abortion; drug and tobacco use


Ziadeh_1999

Jordan

1995-1996

Cohort

Hospital

18651

0

-


Hendricks_1999

Singapore

1993-1997

Cohort

Hospital

16169

0

-


Rageth_1999

Switzerland

1983-1996

Cohort

Population

255453

0

-


Archibong_2001

Saudi Arabia

1997-2002

Cohort

Hospital

15191

0

-


Lydon-Rochelle_2001

USA

1987-1996

Cohort

Population

95630

1

AP


Eniola_2002

Nigeria

Case-control

Hospital

272

0

AP; abortion; SE


Gilliam_2002

USA

1986-1989

Case-control

Hospital

1171

1

AP; abortion; tobacco use


Tuzovic_2003

Croatia

1992-2001

Case-control

Hospital

1206

0

-


Hossain_2004

Bangladesh

2000-2002

Cohort

Hospital

2536

0

-


Olive_2005

Australia

1998-2002

Cohort

Hospital

375653

0

-


Getahun_2006

USA

1989-1997

Cohort

Population

156475

1

AP; abortion; alcohol and tobacco use; prenatal care; inter pregnancy interval; SE


Kennare_2007

Australia

1998-2003

Cohort

Population

36038

1

AP; abortion


Hung_2007

Taiwan

1990-2003

Cohort

Hospital

37702

0

-


Daltveit_2008

Norway

1967-2003

Cohort

Population

637497

1

AP; delivery date


Rahim_2009

Pakistan

2001-2005

Cohort

Hospital

20110

0

-


Yang_2009

USA

1995-2000

Cohort

Population

11026768

0

AP; abortion; alcohol, tobacco and drug use; prenatal care; SE


Rosenberg_2010

Israel

1988-2009

Cohort

Hospital

185476

0

AP; abortion; fertility treatment; tobacco use


* AP: age and parity; SE: socioeconomic factors

Gurol-Urganci et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2011 11:95   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-95

Open Data