Table 1

Individual, household and community level characteristics and rates of EBF of children <6 months of age, Nigeria 2003 (n = 658).

Characteristic

Exclusive breastfeeding rates (<6 months, n = 658)


n

%

% 95% CI

Pvalue


Individual level factors

Maternal working status (n = 657)

Non-working

293

44.6

14.2 (9.6 - 20.4)

Working (past 12 months)

365

55.5

18.2 (13.5 - 24.0)

0.338

Maternal education

No education

333

50.6

11.0 (7.5 - 16.0)

Primary

151

22.9

12.7 (7.8 - 20.0)

<0.001

Secondary and above

175

26.6

29.7 (19.9 - 41.9)

Partner's education (n = 629)

No education

254

40.4

10.6 (7.0 - 15.8)

Primary

295

46.9

16.4 (11.5 - 22.7)

0.003

Secondary and above

80

12.8

30.6 (18.1 - 46.8)

Mother's age

15-19 years

264

40.1

15.4 (10.0 - 22.9)

20-34 years

294

44.6

18.9 (13.7 - 25.5)

0.358

35-49 years

100

15.3

11.5 (5.7 - 22.0)

Marital status (n = 635)

Currently married

623

98.1

15.5 (11.7 - 20.1)

Formerly married (div/sep/widow)

12

1.9

35.3 (13.2 - 66.1)

0.050

Birth order

First-born

144

21.9

23.6 (13.2 - 38.4)

2nd-4th

296

44.9

16.5 (11.8 - 22.7)

0.104

5 or more

219

33.2

11.4 (7.4 - 17.1)

Preceding birth interval

No previous birth

144

21.9

23.6 (13.2 - 38.4)

<24 months

73

11.1

25.8 (13.6 - 43.6)

0.044

≥24 months

441

67.1

12.5 (9.3 - 16.6)

Sex of baby

Male

345

52.5

15.2 (10.5 - 21.3)

Female

313

47.5

17.7 (13.2 - 23.3)

0.409

Age of child (months)

0-2.9

303

46.1

22.2 (16.5-29.1)

3-5.9

355

53.9

10.7 (7.6 - 14.9)

<0.001

Place of delivery

Home

455

69.1

12.5 (8.8 - 17.5)

Health facility

203

30.9

25.0 (17.5 - 34.4)

0.003

Mode of delivery (n = 650)

non-caesarean

643

99.0

15.8 (12.0 - 20.6)

Caesarean section

7

1.0

26.6 (7.2 - 62.7)

0.104

Type of delivery assistance (n = 565)

Health professional

221

39.1

23.3 (16.8 - 31.4)

Traditional birth attendance

114

20.2

12.8 (6.5 - 23.7)

0.045

Other

230

40.7

14.3 (8.7 - 22.7)

Antenatal Clinic visits (n = 644)

None

251

39.1

6.0 (3.5 - 10.2)

1-3.

98

15.2

19.8 (11.5 - 31.8)

<0.001

4+

295

45.8

23.5 (17.2 - 31.2)

Timing of postnatal check-up

0-2 days

105

16.1

10.5 (5.1-10.2)

3-41 days

21

3.2

6.7 (1.5 - 25.0)

<0.001

Did not receive postnatal check-up1

314

47.4

25.1 (18.7 - 32.9)

Missing

218

33.2

6.7 (4.2 - 10.6)

Mother's BMI (n = 644)

< = 18.5

70

10.9

9.4 (4.5 - 18.7)

>18.5

573

89.1

17.6 (13.3 - 22.9)

0.159

Size of baby (n = 652)

Small

108

16.6

9.9 (4.5 - 20.4)

Average

289

44.4

16.6 (12.4 - 21.9)

Large

255

39.0

18.5 (12.2 - 27.1)

0.364

Mothers Literacy (n = 648)

Can't read

405

62.6

10.5 (7.3 - 14.7)

Read part/whole sentences

243

37.5

25.7 (17.9 - 35.3)

<0.001

Household level factors

Wealth Index

Poor

285

43.4

8.3 (5.4 - 12.6)

Middle

248

37.7

20.6 (14.5 - 28.5)

Rich

124

18.9

26.4 (16.6 - 39.2)

<0.001

Decisions women have final say

None

310

47.1

16.5 (10.7 - 24.7)

1-2.

212

32.2

13.8 (8.2 - 22.4)

0.725

3-4.

84

12.8

19.1 (11.6 - 29.9)

5

51

7.8

21.5 (9.9 - 40.7)

Community level factors

Residence

Urban

180

27.3

20.7 (14.7 - 28.4)

Rural

478

72.7

14.7 (10.2 - 20.9)

0.179

Geographical region

North Central

89

13.5

40.5 (29.7 - 52.5)

North East

149

22.6

11.5 (5.3 - 23.0)

North West

233

35.5

7.4 (4.4 - 12.3)

<0.001

South East

35

5.3

9.6 (3.3 - 24.9)

South South

85

13.0

14.7 (5.5 - 33.6)

South West

67

10.1

32.2 (19.5 - 48.1)


Overall

658

100

16.4 (12.6 - 21.1)

NA


Weighted total count = 658 unless otherwise given in brackets, Pvalue obtained by chi-squared test

1includes women who received the first postnatal check-up after 41 days

NA = Not applicable

Agho et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2011 11:2   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-2

Open Data