Table 5

Pooled estimates effect of preconception care

Dichotomous outcomes of preconception care

No of studies [references]

Risk Ratio (95%Confedance interval)


Congenital malformation

11 [10,16,19-21,23,25,26,28,32,33]

0.25(0.15,0.42)


Perinatal Mortality

5 [10,16,20,23,33]

0.35(0.15,0.82)


Macrosomia

3 [10,20,23]

1.03(0.81,1.30)


Cesarean Section

5 [10,16,20,21,23]

1.08(0.96,1.22)


Preterm Delivery

4 [10,16,20,23]

0.7 (0.55,0.90)


Pre-eclampsia

3 [10,20,21]

0.92(0.62,1.35)


Neonatal Hypoglycemia

3 [20,21,23]

0.65(0.39,1.08)


Maternal Hypoglycemia

2 [10,28]

1.51(1.15,1.99)


Spontaneous Abortion

7 [10,15,20,23,25,26,32]

0.78(0.55,1.11)


Respiratory Distress Syndrome

3 [20,21,23]

0.55(0.26,1.16)


Small for Gestation Age

2 [20,23]

0.26(0.05,1.41)


Continuous outcomes

Number of studies ( references)

Means difference (95% CI)


The difference in the level of glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c

4 [10,21,26,28]

2.43(2.27,2.58)


The difference in gestational age at first visit to antenatal care

3 [10,23,26]

1.32 (1.23, 1.40)


Wahabi et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2010 10:63   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-10-63

Open Data